# Midterm~ Science

## 34 terms

### Can you measure with a thermometer?

Yes, whole numbers.

Yes

### Can you construct a line graph?

Yes, be sure to include a title, labels, and a key if necessary.

### Can you determine the amount of stored energy in a food?

You could determine the amount of stored energy in a food by burning it to release it's energy. Heat water over the flame to measure the released energy.
Be sure to measure the heat of the water and the weight of the food before and after the experiment.
delta temp.
over
delta mass

### Law of Conservation of Energy?

Energy can be transferred or transformed to into different forms. Ex. heat, chemical, stored/potential, kinetic, sound, light, electrical. Energy is always conserved in any transfer process and can be neither created nor destroyed.

### Thermodynamics

The study of heat and heat transfer.

### 1st Law of Thermodynamics?

All heat entering a system adds that amount of energy to the system.
Ex. Adding 50 units of heat to a beaker with 100 using a burner, the beaker now has 150 units of heat.

### 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?

Heat always flows from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature.
Ex. Putting your finger into a glass of water that is cooler than your internal body temperature will transfer your heat to the water.

### Cellular Respiration

A chemical process that takes place in cells of all organisms. It's the chemical process of releasing energy from food. All living organisms do cellular respiration. ex. fermentation in yeast cells

### Aerobic C.R.

*Requires oxygen gas
*Most common form of C.R., done by plants and animals
*Most efficient form, gets the most out of each glucose molecule

### Anaerobic C.R.

*Doesn't require oxygen
Ex. Fermentation

### Fermentation

An example of anaerobic cellular respiration. Chemical formula: c12h22o11+h2o--> c2h5oh+4co2
An example of fermentation is when we mixed yeast with sugar, creating fizz, which is a sign of fermentation.

### Stored Energy

Is chemical potential energy and is found in food and fuel.
Plants (producers) get stored energy from photosynthesis.
Animals (consumers) get stored energy from consuming other organisms.
Fungi/bacteria (decomposers) get stored energy from breaking down dead organisms. 20% of an organism's stored energy is passed up to a higher trophic level when it is consumed. The method of measuring stored energy is called calorimetry. Stored energy is essential for all living things.

### Poikilotherms

A cold blooded animal whose body temperature can be warm depending on its environment. Ex. reptiles and fish. They're less active when external temperatures are low, and more active when they're high. Adapting with environment temperature helps them maintain sustainable body temperature. They hibernate in winter, and their bodies are able to prevent the formation of ice crystals in their cells.

### Homeostasis

Stabilizing an organism's internal body temperature, regulating body temperature, body chemistry, and fighting infection.

### Homeotherms

Any animal species that can maintain a relatively constant body temperature, regardless of surroundings; examples include mammals and bird.

### Yeast

(fungus) Can do aerobic and anaerobic C.R.
*Important in beer, wine, and bread production.

### Protein

Molecules required for the survival, growth, and development. Most organisms cannot survive in high temperatures because their protein molecules change shape.
Ex. Albumin (protein in an egg white) is normally soluble in water, and is the clear liquid in a raw egg. When heated, such as in a frying pan, the molecules change shape, making them insoluble.

### Trophic Levels

(feeding levels) Arrows so direction of energy transfer. Stored energy is transferred to higher trophic levels when and organism is eaten by another organism. 80% of the energy transferred is lost.
1. Some lost in heat
2. Some remains in unconsumed food
3. Some remains in undigested food
Only 20% is passed up to the next higher level.

### Glucose

A simple sugar. Is a food for plants and is used as a primary energy source for virtually all other living things.

### Plankton

"tiny wanderer" They're microscopic, numerous, and live in the top 60 ft. of salt or fresh water. This 60 ft. layer is the layer of water that light can easily penetrate, and is where phytoplankton live and the zooplankton follow them there as a source of food. They're very abundant because they're incredibly small. In the lab we did on plankton, there were tons of them swimming around in only a few drops of sea water. They're also at a low (if not the lowest) trophic level, so the organisms above them need to eat a lot of them to get enough energy because the consumer only gets 20% of the plankton's energy.

### Phytoplankton

Producers, use the sunlight that penetrates the water to do photosynthesis. Are green colored.

### Zooplankton

Consumers, they feed on phytoplankton and other organisms.

### Renewable Fuels

Fuels that can be replenished within a single human lifetime.
Ex. firewood

### Nonrenewable Fuels

Fuel that takes longer than a human lifetime to replenish; if ever.
Ex. Oil, coal, natural gas

### Ecosystem

Made up of populations of many different organisms that rely on each other, along with shared resources of air, water, and other environmental factors.

### Consumers

Primary Consumers- Organisms that obtain energy by eating producers.
Secondary Consumers- Organisms that eat primary consumers for energy.
Tertiary Consumers- Organisms that eat only secondary consumers

### Photosynthesis

The process of which green plants convert radiant energy from the sun into chemical energy.

### Producers

Plants and other organisms that use photosynthesis to make their own food for chemical energy.

### Decomposers

An organism that consumes dead or decaying matter.
Ex. bacteria, fungi

### Calculate "estimated total population from capture-tag-recapture data"

Steps:
1. Name the formula. What does it do? (in this case, iy gives you the estimated total population in an ecosystem.)
2. State the formula. (will be provided on the exam.)
3. Fill in the numbers, include units.
4. Simplify, get an answer with units. Only whole numbers. (You can't have half of a freakin' otter!)

...

### design an Energy Flow Diagram for a specific event

Create an original to bring in to him and use it on the exam for a bonus, or use his on the spot during the exam.

### Design a food web for a group of individuals.

Be sure to include a title, trophic levels, and decomposers off to the side.