8. THE CIVIL WAR
|north advantages||productivity/population better than south. North made most of the US firearms and had most railroads. North could feed, clothe, arm, and transport as many soldiers as they wanted.|
|end of civil war/ lincoln||April 2, 1865, Lee retreated from Petersburg -> 7 days later Lee + 25,000 troops surrendered at Appomattox Court House -> Jefferson Davis captured in Georgia on May 10 Lincoln assassinated April 14 Ford's Theatre by confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth by 1865, divided people forcibly reunited by battle end of bloodiest war in America, devastating losses in lives, greatest the nation would suffer, not only to affect family but also postwar society|
|civil war results||politically, deepest irony of civil war = only by fighting had America become completely a nation, for war broke down local isolationfederal government, strengthened by wartime necessity war destroyed slavery, though not racism war settled constitutional crisis caused by secession of south united states now one unit, reality of single nation in which federal government had precedence over state government south paid high price for secession and defeat, material and psychological wounds, rebuilding economy many southerners bitter and resentful white notions of race, class and honor died many filled with hate towards north bitter over emancipation, especially planter elite -- believe to have been degraded and robbed of property whites view blacks as even more inferior racial order become consuming passion for white southerners|
|emancipation proclamation||Slaves flock to help Union, Northerners realize that their policy must address the issue of slavery. 1862, Lincoln is reluctant to do anything for fear of disunity:|
Only a small group of Republican abolitionists support freeing of slaves, most don't want slavery to spread but don't care about slave life Northern Democrats are mostly anti-black, feared freed blacks and what they would do. Especially Irish workers who already rioted against freed blacks, b/c they= job competition
Lincoln initially proposes in March 1862 that all states gradually emancipate slaves and then send them to Panama and Haiti, which fails because:US does not own Panama or Haiti Radical Republicans think it is too slowFollowing Antietam, Lincoln proclaims in Sep. 1862 that unless the South states return to the Union by Jan 1 1863, he would free their slaves Purpose: to satisfy abolitionists and conservatives in the border states.
|emancipation proc rules||◦ Following Antietam, Lincoln proclaims in Sep. 1862 that unless the South states return to the Union by Jan 1 1863, he would free their slaves Officially, links war with slave system, The actual Proclamation frees slaves in the rebellious states, but allows border states and conquered Confederate states to keep slavery. (fear of losing support in the border states)|
|white south view of emancipation||Makes Southerners (especially planter elite) very racist because they want to stick to the status quo. They want White supremacy to prevail.|
|AA view of emancipation||Met with huge African American celebration, they think the Proclamation will encourage slaves to flee to the Union or refuse to work.However, this is already happening, African Americans are taking advantage of the war to change their societal standing.Emancipation Proclamation makes official what is already happening.|
|lincoln's goal||main goal is to unify the nation and persuade south to rejoin the union get the south back fast as possible|
|conscription||Was the union draft based on theory that threat of coercion would stimulate reenlistments and volunteering coercion and federal marshalls were needed to fill ranks provision in draft law allowed for the hiring of substitutes or paying a commutation fee of $300 (many substitutes were immigrants) unpopular, democrats inflamed the issue conscription often marred by prejudice and favoritism many more poor than rich enlisted, as wells as more immigrants than nonimmigrants in reality, only 7% of men called to serve actually did led to the NY city draft riots 105 people killed slogan "a rich man's war but a poor man's fight" begins to catch on in the north as well|
|northern sentiment of freedmen||--FREEDMEN'S BUREAU - provided food, clothing, fuel to former slaves and gave 40 acres abandoned/confiscated land to freedmen or white Unionists|
--African Americans channeled their political activism through the Union League in the South
--Union Pacific later employs gangs of African American (and Irish American) workers to lay railroad tracks heading west.
--As enterprise grew, Republicans began to identify with the interest of business rather than the rights of freedmen - they claimed that the national government had done everything they could for the former slaves, now they must take care of themselves.