operant conditioning and classical conditioning

38 terms by christina1021

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

shaping

reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as a shock

primary reinforcer

satisfies a biological need

acquisition

the initial stage of linking the neutral and the unconditioned stimulus so that neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stim

classical conditioning

type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli

unconditioned response

unlearned, naturally occurring response to an unconditioned stim

unconditioned stim

the stimulus that produces the unlearned response to a perviously neutral stimulus

conditioned response

the learned response

conditioned stim

a previously irrelevant stimulus that triggers a conditioned response

continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

delayed reinforcement

reinforcement that is produced within some time after the behavior

discrimination

the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned and stimuli that do not elicit the response

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

latent learning

learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

modeling

the process of observing and imitating

negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.

positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

primary reinforcement

something that is naturally reinforcing, such as food (if you are hungary), warmth (if you are cold), and water (if you are thirsty)

partial reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

negative punishment

punishment that occurs with the removal of a stimulus and thus decreases the probability of a behavior's recurring

positive punishment

Following an undesired response by adding an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the likelihood of the behavior reoccurring

observational learning

learning by observing others

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher

fixed interval

consistent, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific time

fixed ratio

consistent, reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specific number of responses

variable interval

not constant, reinforces a response only after a specific time (how long?)

variable ratio

not constant, reinforces a response (how many?)

dissociation

split consciousness, simultaneous thoughts

hallucinogens

LSD, distort perception and produce falso sensory images

opiates

depress neural activity, opium, heroin, morphine, lessen pain

physical dependence

psychological need for a drug

psychoactive drugs

chemical substance which alters perception and moods

REM

rapid eye movement, heart rate increases, breathing become irregular, vivid dreams occur

stage 1

alpha waves, hallucinations, hypnagogic

stage 2

theta waves, sleep spindles, sleep talking

stage 3/4

delta waves, night terrors, sleep walking

sleep apnea

breathing cessations, repeated awakening

stimulant

excites neural activity, cocain

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set