CP Biology Ch. 8 CPA

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24 terms · Mrs. Romaine 2nd semester

chromosomes

in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA

histones

a type of protein molecule found in the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells but not prokaryotic cells

chromatid

one of the two strands of a chromosome that become visible during meiosis or mitosis

centromere

the region of the chromosome that holds the two sister chromatids together during mitosis

chromatin

the material that makes up both mitotic and interphase chromosomes; a complex of proteins and DNA strands that are loosely coiled such that translation and transcription can occur

sex chromosome

one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual

autosome

any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structured, and that pair during meisosis

karyotype

a micrograph of the array of chromosomes visible in a cell during metaphase; a graphical display that shows and individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs and in order of diminishing size

diploid

a cell that contains two haploid sets of chromosomes

haploid

describes a cell, nucleus, or organism that has only one set of unpaired chromosomes

Binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

mitosis

in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes

Asexual reproduction

reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.

meiosis

a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells

gamete

a haploid reproductive cell that unites with another haploid reproductive cell to form a zygote

interphase

a period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions during which the cell grows, copies its DNA, and synthesizes proteins

cytokinesis

the division of the cytoplasm of a cell; cytokinesis follows the division of the cell's nucleus by mitosis or meiosis

prophase

the first stage of mitosis and meiosis in cell division; characterized by the condensation of the chromosomes and the dissolution of the nuclear envelope

Spindle fiber

one of the microtubules that extend across a dividing eukaryotic cell; assists in the movement of chromosomes

metaphase

one of the stages of mitosis and meiosis, during which all of the chromosomes move to the cell's equator

anaphase

a phase of mitosis and meiosis in which the chromosomes separate

telophase

the final stage of mitosis or meiosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each set of new chromosomes

Cell plate

the precursor of a new plant cell wall that forms during cell division and divides a cell into two

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