American revolution. People who opposed the ratification of the Constitution
A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
Wollstonecraft published her masterpiece, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), in which she demanded equal rights for women and advocated rigorous coeducation that would make women better wives and mothers, good citizens, and economically independent.
In his pamphlet What Is the Third Estate? the abbé Sieyès argued that the nobility was a tiny overprivileged minority and that the neglected third estate constituted the true strength of the French nation. Later changed view to "Confidence from below, authority from above."
Assembly of Notables
A group of nobles and aristocrats invited by the king to discuss reform of the government.
the czar of Russia whose plans to liberalize the government of Russia were unrealized because of the wars with Napoleon (1777-1825)
The old order; system of government in pre-revolution France
Paper currency, the French churches were used as collateral -the first French paper currency issued by the General Assembly.
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
Battle of the Nile
1798 Great Britain vs. France. Horatio Nelson and the British defeat Napoleon and France.
The educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
A document, issued by the National Assembly in July 1790, that broke ties with the Catholic Church and established a national church system in France with a process for the election of regional bishops. The document angered the pope and church officials and turned many French Catholics against the revolutionaries.
Cult of Supreme Being
Introduced by Robespierre. Deistic natural religion. Recognized god's existence and immortality of soul. New calender w/o religious holidays, new names of months days and holidays,
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain's economy.
American Revolution. This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soilders in their own homes.
Committee of Public Safety
Robespierre emerged as the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, formed by the Convention in April 1793 to deal with threats from within and outside France. Organized the defenses of France, conducted foreign policy, and centralized authority during the period 1792-1795.
Civil Code (1804)
Napoleonic Code; this code preserved most of the gains of the revolution by recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law, etc.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Having granted new rights to the peasantry, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen on August 27, 1789, guaranteeing equality before the law, representative government for a sovereign people, and individual freedom.
The middle-class members of the National Convention wrote yet another constitution in 1795, reorganized the legislative assembly, and chose a five-man executive called the Directory.The Directory continued to support French military expansion abroad, using war as a means to meet ever-present, ever-unsolved economic problems. The French people quickly grew weary of the unprincipled actions of the Directory, who subsequently used the army to nullify the election of a number of conservative and even monarchist deputies.
Declaration of Pillnitz
In June 1791 Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette attempted to leave France, but they were arrested and returned to Paris, prompting the rulers of Austria and Prussia to issue the Declaration of Pillnitz two months later.The Declaration, which professed the rulers' willingness to intervene to restore Louis XVI's monarchical rule, was expected to have a sobering effect on revolutionary France without causing war, but the rulers misjudged the revolutionary spirit in France.
Georges Jacques Danton
French revolutionary leader who stormed the Paris bastille and who supported the execution of Louis XVI but was guillotined by Robespierre for his opposition to the Reign of Terror (1759-1794). One of the leaders of The Mountain.
In 1787 Louis XVI's minister of finance proposed a general tax on all landed property, but powerful voices insisted that such sweeping tax changes required the approval of the Estates General, the representative body of all three estates, which had not met since 1614.
French nobility who fled country to escape the Revolution. Napoleon granted amnesty to one hundred thousand émigrés on the condition that they return to France and take a loyalty oath.
In 1790, in reaction to the events of the French Revolution, British statesman Edmund Burke (1729-1797) published Reflections on the Revolution in France,which defended inherited privileges of monarchy and aristocracy.
Equality, Liberty, Fraternity
New government based on these ideals.
The 3 Estates
In 1775 France's 25 million inhabitants were still legally divided into three orders, or estates—the clergy, the nobility, and everyone else.
Delegates in the National Convention who favored a republic but feared domination by Paris, formed mainly by middle classes who opposed more radical
German Confederation of the Rhine
In 1806 Napoleon abolished the Holy Roman Empire and consolidated most of the 300 independent political entities into 15 German states called the German Confederation of the Rhine.
Empire built by Napoleon and composed of three parts: an ever-expanding France, a number of dependent satellite kingdoms, and the largely independent but allied states of Austria, Prussia, and Russia
The Great Fear
The fear of noble reprisals against peasant uprisings that seized the French countryside and led to further revolt.
The Hundred Days
After being exiled to the island of Elba, Napoleon returned to France upon hearing of tension in France and with large-scale popular support he regained control.
English admiral who defeated the French fleets of Napoleon but was mortally wounded at Trafalgar (1758-1805)
Led the de-christianization that changed the calendar.
Radical republicans during the French Revolution. Divided into two groups: The Mountain (led by Danton and Robespierre) and the Girondins
This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights. Ideas influenced the American and French revolutions
liberalism in France
Favored the idea of the sovereignty of the people, but the government should rest on the organized consent of at least the most important sections of the community. A good constitutional monarchy was the best form of government. Valued liberty more than equality. Freedom of press, free right of assembly, written constitutions, laissez-faire economy, orderly change by legislative process, dislike of wars, conquests, standing armies, and military expenditures. Hated the idea of revolution!
Law of the Maximum
The fixing of prices on bread and other essentials under Robespierre's rule.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who served under George Washington in the American Revolution (1757-1834)
A leader of Jacobin at one time, slowly gained power until he ruled France like a dictator. The period of his rule became known as the reign of terror. Executed people for virtually no reason at all.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was extremely unpopular. Her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy. She was guillotined along with her husband Louis XVI (1755-1793)
French philosophe who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women. In A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (1792), she demanded equal rights for women and advocated rigorous coeducation that would make women better wives and mothers, good citizens, and economically independent.
French revolutionary leader (born in Switzerland) who was a leader in overthrowing the Girondists and was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday (1743-1793)
Austrian princess, second wife of Napoleon
Madame de Pompadour
The mistress of Louis XV who used her ability to take away her "services" to gain power and to give advice about and make important government decisions
In late September 1792 the new, popularly elected National Convention proclaimed France a republic, a nation in which the people, rather than a monarch, held sovereign power.
Orders in Council
Britain blockaded the ports of France and its allies, thereby preventing neutral nations from trading with these nations
Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Woman
In September 1791, Olympe de Gouges (1748-1793) published her "Declaration of the Rights of Woman," a direct challenge to revolutionaries to respect the ideals of the great 1789 declaration.De Gouges's arguments found little sympathy among the Revolution's leaders, as the vast majority of legislators and ordinary Frenchmen believed that women should focus on their domestic duties.
a direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum
Place de la Concorde
place of the guillotine during the French Revolution; the largest square in western Europe; has an Egyptian obelisk and many fountains
Parlement of Paris
The parlements- 13 in France, were frontline defenders of liberty against royal despotism. The high court judges were the most important and influential in the Parlement of Paris. The Parlement of Paris challenged the basis of royal authority and stopped many repressive taxes.
Reign of Terror
The period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
Rene de Maupeou
Louis XV's financial minister. , abolished the Parlement of Paris and exciled its members to the provionces; created a new and docile Parlement of royal officials; began to re-tax the privlege groups. The majority of philosophes and public sided with the old Parlement, however.
Created in response to when the Civil Constitution of the Clergy created a national church with 83 bishops and dioceses. They had the support of the King, formor aristocrats, peasants, and the urban working class.
Storming of the Tuleries
Louis XVI and Queen were forced into jail after the Sanscullottes and the government stromed the Tuleries in August 10, 1792. King taken prisoner and guards slaughtered. Marks the beginning of the "second revolution."
A radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages
From 1792 to 1795, the second phase of the French Revolution, during which the fall of the French monarchy introduced a rapid radicalization of politics
Term used for Napoleon's invasion of Spain (1808) because the invasion was such a failure for Napoleon.
Tennis Court Oath
On June 17 the third estate voted to call itself the National Assembly, and on June 20 the members of the National Assembly pledged, in the famous Oath of the Tennis Court, not to disband until they had written a new constitution.
The respectable middle-class lawyers and professionals who had led the liberal revolution of 1789 reasserted their authority, abolishing many economic controls and restricting the local political organizations.
Thomas Paine, Rights of Man
Defended Enlightenment principles and France's revolution - triumph of liberty over despotism
The battle on 18 June 1815 in which Napoleon met his final defeat, Located in Belgium, the place where the british army and the prussian army forces attacked the French.
War of Liberation
All across Europe patriots called for a "war of liberation" against Napoleon's oppression, and on April 4, 1814, a defeated Napoleon abdicated his throne.
Women's March on Versailles
On October 5 some seven thousand desperate women marched the twelve miles from Paris to Versailles, invaded the National Assembly, and demanded bread.The women invaded the royal apartments, killed some of the royal bodyguards, and furiously searched for the queen, Marie Antoinette, who was saved only through the intervention of Lafayette and the National Guard.
The most controversial part of the Directory. The "royalists" attacked all of the suspected revolutionaries. Napoleon first appears. "Whiff of Grapeshot"
Whiff of Grapeshot
Napolean's words of threat. Grapeshot is ammunition in cannons and it's a way of saying shoot the guys coming at us with cannons. White Terror.
The National Assembly established eighty-three departments to replace the historic provinces, and it prohibited monopolies, guilds, and barriers to trade.
Many members of the new representative body that convened in Paris in October 1791, called the Legislative Assembly, belonged to the Jacobin club, a political club that drew in men and women who debated the burning political questions of the day.
Lettre de cachet
a warrant formerly issued by a French king who could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal
Law of Suspects
The Law of Suspects was passed on September 17, 1793 and allowed the creation of revolutionary tribunals to try those suspected of treason. It made it much simpler for the Committee of Public Safety to prosecute revolutionaries. It also made it much more difficult for defendants to argue their case, and as a result many more people were convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal.