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Chapter 22 Foundations of the Nineteenth Century: Politics and Change Significant Individuals

Congress of Vienna

An international congress that met from 1814 to 1815 to set peace terms for continental Europe after the Napoleonic Wars; notable for its creation of a European balance of power and the restoration of old dynasties

Congress of Vienna consisted of four great powers

Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, and later France

Klemens von Metternich

Austrian prince who was the most significant during the meeting of Congress of Vienna and formed an international alliance to defeat Napoleon

Lord Castlereagh

English foreign minister who closely supported Metternich

Alexander I

Representative of Russia for Congress of Vienna. He was unpredictable due to his belief in mysticism and distrust for grandiose programs that would affect self-interest

King Louis XVIII

To be king of France after Napoleon as recognized by the Treaty of Paris

Prince Talleyrand

French representative in Congress of Vienna who had once helped Napoleon rise to power and was his foreign minister

Wellington

General of the Allied Army who defeated Napoleon at Waterloo

Hundred days

The days of Napoleons dashing venture to reestablish France that had strong effects

restorations

attempts by the powers in Europe to restore the dynasties and monarchial institutions (including Bourbons in France) disrupted by the revolutionary and Napoleonic upheavals

Monroe Doctrine

United States declaration that America is outside the sphere of European power politics

Decembrist

A group of young army officers who attempted a coup to establish a constitution in Russia

Westernizers

Intellectuals who expected Russia to develop along familiar European lines

Slavohpiles

Russian intellectuals who opposed Westernization and saw Russia's unique institutions and culture as superior; some supported autocracy but also favored emancipation of serfs

Magyar

The Hungarian-speaking population of the Hapsburg Empire who began to push for Hungary's independence in the 1840

Lajos Kossuth

Hungary leading statesman who campaigned for more representative parliament and reforms

Wartburg Festival

An organized celebration of the 300th anniversary of Luther's theses by reform students and nationalists

Zollverein

A customs union established by Prussia among most states in the German Confederation that allowed for free movement of goods; promoted the economic unification of Germany

Ferdinand VII

restored King of Spain

Carbonari

means charcoal burners and was a secret group in Italy that talked of radical reforms and equality and justice

Charles Albert

A prince regent who granted a constitution to Piedmont which lasted two weeks

Charter

A permitted constitution of France that granted legislature more authority but left government in hands of the king

white terror

anyone tainted with revolutionary past were ousted from office or even killed by regime supporters

duke of Barry

son of Louis' younger brother who was assassinated reminding how fragile the monarchy was

Charles X

The next king of France after Louis XVIII who was leader of unltraroyalist and crowned himself at Reims in medieval splendor similar to divine rights of kings

ultraroyalists

French reactionaries who not only supported divine right monarchy but called for return of lands taken from emigres during the revolution

July Ordinances

Secret decrees by king Charles X which dissolved the Chamber of Deputies, further restricted suffrage, and muzzled press

John Wilkinson

ironmaster who believed that iron would be the building material of new age and his improved techniques for boring cylinders made it possible to make better cannons and steam engines. He also built world's first iron bridge

What was steam engine first called

Atmospheric engine

Thomas Savery

inventor who created the first commercially successful atmospheric engine and published about it in a book called Miner's Friend

Corn Laws

British tariff on imported grain

Crystal Palace

giant greenhouse, an architectural milestone, to celebrate their position as the masters of industrialization. An industrial exhibition

differentiation

spread of specialization among groups and institutions that was a characteristic of the nineteenth century

Matthew Boulton

Watt's partner and Birmingham industrialist who realized that cheap power was in demand from textile industries

Concert of Europe

Great powers agreement to support conservative regimes. Influenced by Metternich and it created balance of power

Carlsbad decrees

German measures to keep students and faculty in line. removed liberal university professors and expanded censorship of press

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