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Chapter 1, 2, 5, 16, 18, 22 in Rau's

(Increased and unpleasant sensitivity to all sensory modalities)

Hyperesthesia

(Increased unpleasant abnormal feeling from mildly uncomfortable stimuli

Hyperpathia

(painful feeling from gentle stimuli)

Allodynia

Enzyme that deactivates catalcholomines

COMT = catechol O-methyltransferase; MAO (monoamine oxidase)

the dose of a drug that produces 50% of the maximal effect

ED50

Combination of anti-depresants and analgesics are used to treat . . what kind of pain?

chronic

non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory are used to treat what kind of pain?

moderate

Opioids or narcotic analgesics are used to treat what kind of pain?

moderate or severe pain

3 drugs used to treat Myasthenia Gravis

Neostigmine & Pyridostigmine (Edrophonium is used to diagnose Myasthenia Gravis)

Used to treat fascilulations

nondepolarizing agent

There are 3 types of Opiod receptors . . .

mu, kappa, and delta & several subtypes

The most serious side effect of the opioid antagonists is

Respiratory Depression

The two major control systems in the body are

Nervous system & Endocrine System

The peripheral nervous system is made up of

Sensory neurons, Motor neurons, Autonomic nervous system (1) parasympathetic nervous system (2) sympathetic nervous system

The branches of the parasympathetic nervous system

craniosacral

The neurotransmitter norepinephrine is released at the

Sympathetic neuroeffector site

How is the neurotransmitter acetylcholine inactivated at the parasympathetic terminal receptor site

cholinesterase, acetylcholinesterase, through hydrolysis of an enzyme, and by acetylcholine itself that bind to an autoreceptor

Is it true that there is little or no direct sympathetic innervation of airway smooth muscle in the human lung?

True

Is it true that the pulmonary circulation is innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves?

True

Is it true that there is evidence of a branch of nerves that are neither parasympathetic nor sympathetic and can cause relaxation of airway smooth muscle?

True

Is it true that muscarinic receptors are found in skeletal muscle

False

Is it true that nicotine is capable of stimulating both sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic cholinergic receptors

True

The somatic portion of the nervous system controls what (circle all that apply)

Controls voluntary conscious control

There are other receptors in the central nervous system (brain) that respond to dopamine, a chemical precursor of norepinephrine, and are therefore termed

Dopaminergic

used to promote bronchodilation, also increase catecholamines and increase ventilation

Methylxanthines

What are two Respiratory Stimulants

Caffeine & Theophylline

Cyclic AMP

increases Bronchodilation

Cyclic GMP

causes Bronchoconstriction

The muscarinic effect is seen mainly at which site

Parasympathetic neuroeffector site

Acetylcholine is inactivated by

cholinesterase

Which description is not appropriate for atropine? a) Antinicotinic b) Antimuscarinic c) Parasympatholytic d) Cholinergic antagonist

Anti-nicotinic

On administering a dose of atropine to your patient what effects would you expect to see?

Dry secretions, bronchodilation, antidiarrheal, urinary retention, tachycardia

As a practitioner, you would expect which parts of the physical examination to be affected by a parasympatholytic agent

Dry secretions, bronchodilation, antidiarrheal, urinary retention, tachycardia

We do not use beta-blockers for asthmatics because it causes

broncho constriction

What is the direct-acting cholinergic agent often used in bronchial challenge tests to assess the degree of airway activity

Metacholine

Which type of impulses travel from the brain to the neuroeffector sites

somatic motor neurons & efferent neurons

Because dopamine is chemically similar to epinephrine and stimulates alpha and beta receptors, dopamintergic receptors are classified as a type of

adrenergic

This relaxant factor, which produces vasodilation and is mediated by an increase in intracellular cGMP, has been identified as

Nitric Oxide (NO)

The exact neurotransmitter responsible for relaxation responses mediated by NANC (non-adrenergic non-cholinergic) inhibitory nerves is under investigation

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)

Factors that generally increase the length of neuromuscualr blockade activity

age & hepatic or renal failure

Because API agents are derived from human plasma there is a risk of

disease transmission

may relieve nictine withdrawal by slowing the normal reuptake of dopamine or preventing its breakdown in the central nervous system

Bupropion (Zyban)

one of the most serious complications that can occur with succinylcholine

malignant hyperthermia

Which drug treats malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

This blocks the sensation produced by smoking, thereby breaking the cycle of nicotine addiction

Varenicline (Chantix)

considered to be the location of thought, memory, self-awareness, and personality. Perception of sensation and control of body movement, including speech, are also represented in specific areas of the . . .

the cortex

as a relay station for information traveling to and from the cortex. It also integrates and modulates autonomic functions; this function occurs primarily in the

hypothalamus

contains the control areas for autonomic functions such as breathing and cardiovascular control, as well as the areas responsible for alertness, the reticular activating system

brainstem or medulla

What is the recommended dose of nitric oxide

20 ppm whose dose can be increased to 80 ppm.

is indicated for type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus in adults patients needing to control hyperglycemia (when the glucose is >300)

Exubera

affects the fine motor control and coordinates movement

Cerebellum

Durgs that affect the central nervous system (CNS) are used to affect

perception and mood

functions as a relay station for information traveling to and from the cortex

Midbrain

The initial depolarization causes uncoordinated skeletal muscle contractions referred to as

fasciculations

Cholinergic receptors can be subdivided into two other types of receptors

the muscarinic and nicotinic

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