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Preston Brooks

Responsible for beating radical republican Charles Sumner with his cane

squatter sovereignty

another plan that allowed people of the territory to decide the status of slavery there; later named popular sovereignty

fugitive slave law

Enacted by Congress in 1793 and 1850, these laws provided for the return of escaped slaves to their owners. The North was lax about enforcing the 1793 law, with irritated the South no end. The 1850 law was tougher and was aimed at eliminating the underground railroad.

franklin pierce

an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.

kansas nebraska act

This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.

know-nothings

the American party, formed in July of 1854. It was a secret, and so those who were questioned, answered I know nothing. In the 1850s, there were a large group.

john brown

abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)

james buchanan

The 15th President of the United States (1857-1861). He tried to maintain a balance between proslavery and antislavery factions, but his moderate views angered radicals in both North and South, and he was unable to forestall the secession of South Carolina on December 20, 1860.

dred scot vs. sanford

a lawsuit between a slave and his owner, the court ruled that Scott could not file the case because he was not a citizen

abe lincoln

President during Civil war wrote emancipation Proclamation, freed slaves, etc.

john breckenridge

A Political leader who favored the extension of slavery. His opponents were Douglas and Bell. He polled fewer votes in slave states than the combined strength of his opponents. Showing that because of Uncle toms cabin American was mainly abolitionists.

john c freemont

led groups into southwestern Mexico to claim California as an independent nation

ostend manifesto

a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.

uncle toms cabin

written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.

hariet beecher stowe

Publised the novel Uncle Tom's Cabin.

compromise of 1850

Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War

freeport doctrine

Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so

lecompton constitution

supported the existence of slavery in the proposed state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making Kansas an eventual free state.

free soil party

a former political party in the United States

wilmot proviso

Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico

Popular Sovereignty

people hold the final authority in all matters of government

zachary taylor

General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.

franklin pierce

an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States. Pierce's popularity in the North declined sharply after he came out in favor of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, repealing the Missouri Compromise and reopening the question of the expansion of slavery in the West.

Laissez Faire Economics

Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.

stephen douglas

Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty

republicans

sectional political party that morally protested slavery, it became the second major political party

bleeding kansas

A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.

millard fillmore

elected Vice President and became the 13th President of the United States when Zachary Taylor died in office (1800-1874)

james buchanon

was the Democratic Candidate of the election of 1856, was a minister to England and had been safely out of the country during the recent controversies. After the heated campaign, Buchanan won a narrow victory taking office as one of the oldest presidents. And whether because of age and physical infirmities or because of a more fundamental weakness of character, he became a painfully timid and indecisive president at a critical moment in history.

dred scott case

Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south

roger taney

United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court

Impending Crisis of the South

written by North Carolinian Hinton R. Helper, alleged that non-slave holding whites suffered most from slavery

harpers ferry

John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged

election of 1860

Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a number of states seceded from the Union.

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