a ring of DNA used as cloning vec
activation of a gene that results in the formation of a protein.
helps to maintain the cells shape and size; a network of long proteins located in the cytosol
system of flattened membranous sacs called THYLAKOIDS
grow in skin and tissues that line the organs of the body. ( lung , breast , colon )
high melting points ,solids at room temp
cells shrinks , loss of turgor press
a substance that produces hydroxide ions ( OH ions ) , also known as alkaline
Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium
that allele frequencies in a population tend to remain the same from generation to generation unless acted on by outside influences.
- threads of a protein called ACTIN
the conversion of light energy into chemical energy stored in organic compounds
a cell component that performs a specific function for the cell .
- All cells are surrounded by a cell membrane
produce new organisms like themselves
ARE EITHER CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF A CHROMOSOME OR THE LOSS OF AN ENTIRE CHROMOSOME
equal to the number of individuals with a particular phenotype divided by the total number of individual in the population
Cells move materials up their concentration gradient, from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration; requires energy to be expended
transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring
THE FIELD OF BIOLOGY DEVOTED TO UNDERSTANDING HOW CHARACTERISTICS ARE TRANSMITTED FROM PARENTS TO OFFSPRIN
involves the movement of large particles of food or whole cells
1. LIGHT INTENSITY
2. LEVEL OF CARBON DIOXIDE
3 things of photosynthesis
the application of molecular genetics for practical purpose
environment selects similar phenotypes
made up of molecules
the incorporating of C from carbon dioxide into organic compounds
the oxidation of the glucose is completed .
In eukaryotic cells , takes place in the MITOCHONDRIAL MATRIX
composed of more than one cell
- composed of different kind of cells
the principle that states living things come from non-living things.
a protein that inhibits an operator and thus stops gene expression.
a pattern of bands made up of specific fragments from an individual's DNA
a gene that causes cancer or other uncontrolled cell proliferation
the cloning vector with donor gene is inserted into a host (transgenic organism)
a substance that produces hydronium ions ( hydrogen ions
reactions that involve a net absorption of energy
grow in bone and muscle tissue.
Probably arose from H. erectus
THE EXCHANGE OF GENES BY RECIPROCAL SEGMENTS OF HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES DURING MEIOSIS. CHANGES THE LOCATIONS OF GENES ON THE CHROMOSOMES THUS PRODUCING NEW GENE COMBINATIONS
- a system of membranous tubules and sacs
includes all chemical reactions in which energy is released to support cell life.
begins with a biochemical pathway called GLYCOLYSIS
results from barriers to successful breeding
between population groups in the same area.
- one nucleotide in a codon is replaced
with a different nucleotide; results in new codon for different amino acid
the complete genetic material contained in an individual.
-cells are able to control which portion of the genome will be expressed and when.
a pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of PYRUVIC A
Charles Darwin : Published the "The Origin of the Species".
Proposed the hypothesis that species were modified by natural selection
compounds that do not contain carbon, compounds like minerals
are chemical substances that help to maintains a constant pH -they can neutralize small amounts of acids and bases
means upright man range between 50,000 years to 1.8 million years ago
1. ) KREB CYCLE
2. ) ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
the passage of large molecules to the outside of the cell
consists of repeated , linked units
unicellular organisms that lack a membrane-bond nucleus and other organelles
- means handy man between 1.6 and 2.5 million years ago.
a group that comprises humans andtheir immediate ancestors
STUDY OF CELLS , THEIR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
THREE CLASSES OF LIPIDS
involves the gain of electrons , thus becoming more negative
fluid -filled organelles store enzymes and metabolic wastes ( some waste are toxic and must be kept away from he rest of cell )
pull of gravity on an object
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS COMPOSED MAINLY OF C , H , O AND N
PROTEINS NUCLEIC ACIDS
FOURS CLASSES OF ESSENTIAL ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
large complex organic molecules
- store information in the cells , use a system of four compounds.
MONOSACCHARIDE DISACCHARIDES POLYSACCHARIDE
Three main classes of carbohydrates
study of the structure and function of chromosomes and genes.
low melting points , liquid at room temp ; found in plant seeds , oils , fruits and veg
an important class of catalyst in living things
composed of two fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerin
Law of Superposition
lowest stratum - oldest top stratum - most recent
- species of organisms appeared, existed for a while, and then became extinct, followed by newer species.
- rod-shaped , scattered throughout the cytosol
an abnormal proliferation of cells that result from the uncontrolled,abnormal cell division.
consists of several types of tissue that interact to perform a specific function
diseases or debilitating conditions
that have a genetic basis
stores and transfers information essential for the manufacturing of proteins
smaller , simpler molecules
change in a single nucleotide
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen , and oxygen in a ratio of two hydrogens to one oxygen
A HOMOGENIOUS MIXTURE OF TWO OR MORE SUBSTANCES
organelle that removes water
- pumping action requires energy
mutually beneficial relationship between one organism and another that lives within it.
groups of cells that carry out a specific function, show cell specialization
solid tumors that grow in the tissues that form blood cells. ( leukemia )
the process of the breaking down of some complex molecules
A CHANGE IN THE DNA OF AN ORGANISM
The inner membrane
which contains fold known as CRISTAE that provide space for the chemical reactions of the mitochondria
ELEMENTS COMPOUNDS MIXTUR
THREE CLASSES OF MATTER
compounds that contain carbon; compounds that make up living materials
made up of two monosaccharides, double sugars .
- Formed through a condensation reaction (dehydration reaction)
hollow tubes ; provide support for the cell
- extend outward from a central point near he nucleus
cells that ingest bacteria and viruses
reactions that involve a net release of energy
includes lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers
composed of glucose and glucose
the combination of DNA from two or more sources
CILIA AND FLAGELLA
HAIRLIKE ORGANELLES THAT EXTEND FROM THE SURFACE OF THE CELL; ASSIST IN MOVEMENT
Biological Concept of a Species
defined a species as a population of organisms that can successfully interbreed but cannot breed
with other organisms.
TAKES PLACE IN A BODY CELL, CAN AFFECT THE ORGANISM, NOT PASSED ON TO OFFSPRING
agents that cause mutation to occur within a cell.
species become more and more dissimilar
a simple sugar , a monomer of a carbohydrate .
organisms who cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles
phenotype in between that of the parents.
-two or more allele influence the phenotype
Morphological Concept of a Spec
- used the internal and external structure and appearance of an organism for classifying it as a species
involves two pairs of contrasting traits (alleles)
Law of Independent Assortment
factors for different characteristics are distributed to gametes independently
experimented with garden peas. (Pisum sativum)
total genetic information available in a population.
- contains the genes for the next generation
SMALL AND SPHERICAL ; ENCLOSE HYDROLYTIC ENZYMES
consist of a long chain fatty acid joined to a long chain of alcohol
made of several organs working as a unit to perform a certain activity
study of the geographical distribution of fossils and of living organisms.
ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
Constitutes the second stage of aerobic respiration
ARE LARGE NON-POLAR ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT DO NOT DISSOLVE IN WATER .
- STORE ENERGY EFFICIENTLY
STUDY OF HEREDITY
analyzes amniotic fluid
uneven distribution of electrical change within the molecule
the process by which cells ingest external fluids , macromolecules and large particles , including other cells
has one copy of a particular chromosome.
piece breaks off and reattaches to another chromosome
segment breaks off and reattaches in reverse
cell contain a variety of internal structures called ORGANELLES
cross involves one pair of alleles.
found in most nuclei; small spherical area in nucleus ;
- site where ribosomes are synthesized and assembled
code for specific prote
any substance that increases the risk of cancer. (tobacco, asbestos , sun , etc. )
a state of balance
involves the transport of solutes or fluids
influenced by sex hormones.
( hair loss )
OCCURS IN GAMETES. DO NOT AFFECT ORGANISM, BUT MAY BE PASSED ON TO OFFSPRING
the process in cells make ATP by breaking down organic compounds
STUDY OF THE FUNCTION OF LIVING THINGS
STUDY OF STRUCTURE OF LIVING THINGS
the principle that states that all living things come from other living things.
( common table sugar ) is composed of glucose and fructose
the study of evolution from a genetic point of view.
one or more nucleotides are added to a gene
the bursting of cells, cells swell and eventually burst
The outer membrane
which forms the boundary of the mitochondria
features that serve identical functions, and may look somewhat al
allele frequencies change as a result of random event or chance
influenced by geographic proximity
- selection of mate with certain traits
failure of a chromosome to separate from its homologue during meiosis. One gamete receives an extra copy or one lacks the chromosome.
LONG CHAIN CARBOXYLIC ACIDS THAT MAKE UP MOST LIPIDS
composed of three molecules of fatty acids joined to one molecule of glycerol
a solution that has the same concentration of solute as the cellular cytosol
initial reactions in photosynthesis; begins with the absorption of light in the chloroplasts
GENES LOCATED ON ONE CHROMOSOME, TWO OR MORE GENES FOUND ON THE SAME CHROMOSOME, INHERITED TOGETHER.
Acquired traits were passed on to offspring (theory)
scientists who study fossil evidence of human evolution
involves the loss of electrons, thus becoming more positive
THE UNIT OF THE SOURCE OF ENERGY ( ATP )
ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ACT AS CATALYSTS
branch of biology which studies the interactions of organisms with one another and with their environment .
used for molecules that cannot diffuse rapidly through the cell membrane
Removal of repressor protein is called
invade and destroy healthy tissues elsewhere in the body. ( cancer )
surrounded by two membranes and contains DNA
- the spread of cancer beyond their original site, cancer cells break away.
Law of Segregation
a pair of factors is segregated, or separated during formation of gametes
CELL MEMBRANE PUMPS
move substances up their concentration gradient