Cisco Network Fundamentals Ch 5

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Which protocol provides connectionless network layer services? IP, TCP, UDB or OSI?

IP. TCP is connection-oriented, and UDP is connectionless but works on the transport layer.

What two commands can be used to view a host's routing table?

Netstat -r and route print

Select three pieces of information about a route that a routing table contains: Next hop, source address, metric, destination network address, last hop, default gateway.

Next hop, metric and destination network. Routers do not need source address, last hop, or default gateway to find a path to the network.

What kinds of problems are caused by excessive broadcast traffic on a network segment? (Choose 3)
Consumes network bandwidth, increases overhead on network, requires complex address schemes, interrupts other host functions, divides networks based on ownership, advanced hardware required.

Reduced network bandwidth, increased overhead, and reduced host functions. The other answers are part of solutions to excessive broadcasts

What are three key factors to consider when grouping hosts into a common network?

Purpose, ownership, and geographic location are key ways to divide a network

Which of the following are not functions of the network layer? (Choose two)
Routing, addressing packets with an IP address, delivery reliability, application data analysis, encapsulation, decapsulation

Delivery reliability and application data analysis. The first is a transport layer concern, and the second is the presentation layer. Routing, addressing packets with an IP adress, encapsulation and decapsulation are functions of the network layer.

Which of the following are true about IP? (Choose two)
- IP stands for International Protocol
- It is the most common network layer protocol
- It analyzes presentation layer data
- It operates at OSI layer 2
- It encapsulates transport layer segments

It is the most common, and it encapsulates transport layer segments

What is the name of the process of removing the OSI Layer 2 information from an IP packet?

Decapsulation

Which of the following is true about IP?
- It is connection-oriented.
- It uses application data to determine the best path.
- It is used by both routers and hosts.
- It is reliable.

It is used by both routers and hosts. The second one is incorrect because IP uses addressing information in the header to determine the best path for the packet. "Reliable" is incorrect because IP is only a "best effort" protocol

Which of the following are true about network layer encapsulation? (Choose two).
- It adds a header to the segment.
- It can happen many times on the path to the destination host.
- It is performed by the last router on the path.
- Both source and destination IP addresses are added.
- It converts transport layer information into a frame.

It adds a header, and adds both source and destination IP addresses.
Network layer encapsulation happens only on the original host; other devices can read the data, but they do not remove or alter it until the destination network is reached.

Which of the following are true about TCP and IP? (Choose two).
- TCP is connectionless and IP is connection-oriented.
- TCP is reliable and IP is unreliable.
- IP is connectionless and TCP is connection-oriented.
- TCP is unreliable, and IP is reliable.
- IP operates at the transport layer.

2nd and third choices are correct--TCP is reliable and connection-oriented. IP is the one that's unreliable and connectionless. IP operates at the network layer.

Why is IP "media independent"?
- It encapsulates Layer 1 instructions.
- It works the same on all Layer 1 media.
- It carries both video and voice data.
- It works without Layer 1 media.

It works the same on all Layer 1 media

TCP is a ________________ layer protocol.

transport

How many bits are in an IPv4 address?

32 - there are four octets of 8 bits each in an IPv4 address

How many bits are in an IPv6 address?

128

Which of the following are true about static and dynamic routing?
- Static routing requires a routing protocol such as RIP.
- A default is a dynamic route.
- Dynamic routing adds packet-processing overhead.
- Administrative overhead is reduced with static routing.
- Routers can use static and dynamic routing simultaneously

Dynamic routing adds packet-processing overhead, and routers can use static and dynamic routing simultaneously

What four tasks does the network layer perform?

- Addressing packets with IP addresses
- Encapsulation
- Routing
- Decapsulation

IP requires that each sending and receiving device have a __________ IP address.

unique

When an OSI Layer 4 PDU has been encapsulated at the network layer it is called a ______________.

packet

For a network layer packet to travel between hosts, it must be handed down to the _________________ layer, for another layer of encapsulation called framing, and then encoded and put onto the ____________ layer to be sent to the next router.

data link, physical

Encapsulation occurs at all, some or none of the layers of the OSI model?

All

When an IP packet is decapsulated, the information in the packet is handed to the upper or lower layers for delivery and processing?

upper

IP is designed or not designed to track and manage the flow of packets?

Not, these are done by other protocols in other layers

What are the three basic characteristics of IPv4?

Connectionless, Best effort (unreliable), media independent

MTU stands for ?

Maximum transmission unit

The router a network uses to send and receive messages beyond the network is called a ___________ router.

gateway

Routers add routes for the connected networks to their ________________ .

routing table

The three main features of routes in a routing table are?

- Destination network
- next-hop
- metric

An example of a communication that sends a letter to someone without notifying the recipient in advance is called?

Connectionless

What is the purpose of the ToS field in the IPv4 header?

The type-of-service field contains an 8-bit binary value that is used to determine the priority of each packet. This enables QoS (Quality of service) to happen.

On a particular network how would you determine the default gateway address for a host?

The default gateway address is the address of a router interface that is connected to the same network as the host.

Routes to remote networks with the associated next-hops can be manually configured on the router. What is the same for this type of routing?

Static routing

If a router needs to send a packet but doesn't know the next hop or destination network, what can it do?

Forward the packet to the default route interface (gateway) or just drop/discard the packets

What information does a router need to successfully forward packets?

The router matches the destination address in the packet header with the destination network of a route in the routing table and forwards the packet to the next-hop router specified by that route

What is a broadcast domain?

A broadcast domain is a logical part of a network (a network segment) in which any network equipment can transmit data directly to another equipment or device without going through a routing device (assuming the devices share the same subnet and use the same gateway; also, they must be in the same VLAN).
Specifically, the broadcast domain is that certain area of the computer network that's composed by every single computer or network equipment that can be reached directly by sending a simple frame to the data link layer's broadcast address.

What is a common device used to divide/break up a broadcast domain into smaller broadcast domains?

Routers (the subnetting process)

Name the private address blocks

10.0.0.0/8 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0/12 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
192.168.0.0/16 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255

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