The body's defense mechanisms can be organized into one of two major categories of immune mechanisms; these are:
nonspecific(innate) and (adaptive)specific immunity.
The internal environment of the human body is protected by the _____, which is referred to as the first line of defense
The ingestion and destruction of microorganisms or other small particles is called
Lymphocytes that kill many types of tumor cells and cells infected by different kinds of viruses are known as
natural killer cells.
Specific immunity, part of the body's third line of defense, is orchestrated by two different classes of a type of white blood cell called the
Because T cells attack pathogens more directly, T cell immune mechanisms are classified as:
Recognition of antigens by antibodies occurs when:
an antigen's epitopes fit into and bind to an antigen molecule's antigen-binding site
_____ occurs when specific or nonspecific immune mechanisms are put in place by genetic mechanisms during the early stages of human development in the womb.
Self tolerance is refered to as what
The ability of our immune system to attack abnormal foreign cells but spare our own
Why is it called innate immunity
Immunity is placed before a persone is exposed to a particular harmful particle or condition. It is already present naturally at birth
Non specific immunity implies what
immune mechanism do not only act on one or two specifc invaders but rather provide a general defense vs nonself particles
Adaptive or specific immunity implies what
Immune mechanism recognize specific threatening agents and then adapt or respond vs these agents only
What is released from cells to trigger or regulate innate and adaptive immune response
Cytokines, they also participate in innate immunity
Which immunity mechanism is faster to respond and why?
Innate due to its natural antibodies are already in place vs the adaptive immunity it has to meet the intruder recognize it and then built antibodies vs it.
Explain the term Species resistance
Basically states that diseases that affect other species wont necessary affect us.
What is the the third line of defense in immunity
Specific immune response(adaptive) and natural killer cells
How does inflammation work in immunity
It isolates the pathogen and stimulates the speedy arrival of large number of immune cells
What are the two types of phagocytes and which is the first to arrive at the scene of inflammation
Neutrophils and Macrophages, Neutrophils are first to arrive at the scene.
How does complement work in immunity
Group of plasma proteins that produce a cascade of chemical reactions that causes lysis of the foreign cell it can be triggered by innate and adaptibe immune mechanisms
The term pavementing refers to
when the neutrophils and other phagocytes adhere to the endothelial lining
What causes pus?
When dead phagocytes pile up at the inflammatory site it forms most of the white substance
What type of phagocyte is in contact with the external enviroment such as the skin and mucous membranes
Dendritic cells(also called stellate or star shape)
How do NK cells recognize abnormal cells?
By using two types of receptors; a killer activitaning receptor and a killer inhibiting receptor.
If the killing inhibtion receptor of the NK binds with the MHC protein what occurs.
The killing process stops
What is a MHC
A protein that helps NK cells to recognize abnormal cells, if the MHC is missing it will attack
What is the fucntion of b cells
They do not attack pathogens but BUILD or produce antibodies to attack the pathogen, they are classified as antibody mediated immunity.
T cells are considered what type of immunity and why
Cell mediated immunity because they attack pathogens more directly
What is the international system for naming surface marker cells.
CD system (cluster of diffrentiation)
what are the two stages in B cells development
Pre b cells develop by a few months of age.
Second stage occurs in the lymph nodes or spleen when a naive(virgin) cell binds to a specific antigen
NK cells, Epithelial barriers, Phagocytes, complements are part of what immunity and react in how many hours after infection
Innate immunity 0-12 hrs after exposure