Medical Terminology, Chapter 2 Terms, The Human Body in Health and Disease

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Medical terminology terms

airborne transmission

occurs through contact with contaminated respiratory droplets spread by a cough or sneeze

abdominal cavity

contains primarily the major organs of digestion

abdominopelvic cavity

refers to the abdominal and pelvic cavities as a single unit

adenectomy

the surgical removal of a gland

adenitis

the inflammation of a gland

adenocarcinoma

a malignant tumor that originates in glandular tissue

adenoma

a benign tumor that arises in, or resembles, glandular tissue

adenomalacia

the abnormal softening of a gland

adenosclerosis

the abnormal hardening of a gland

adenosis

any disease condition of a gland

adipose tissue

provides protective padding, insulation, and support

adult stem cells

undifferentiated cells found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ

anaplasia

a change in the structure of cells and in their orientation to each other

anatomic position

describes the body assuming that the individual is standing in the standard position that includes: standing up straight so that the body is erect and facing forward; holding the arms at the sides with the hands turned with the palms turned toward the front

anatomic reference systems

used to describe the locations of the structural units of the body

anatomy

the study of the structures of the body

anomaly

a deviation from what is regarded as normal

anterior

situated in the front; front or forward part of an organ

aplasia

the defective development, or the congenital absence, of an organ or tissue

atresia

describes the congenital absence of a normal opening or the failure of a structure to be tubular

autopsy

a postmortem examination

bloodborne transmission

the spread of a disease through contact with blood or other body fluids that are contaminated with blood

body cavities

spaces within the body that contain and protect internal organs

body planes

imaginary vertical and horizontal lines used the divide the body into sections for descriptive purposes

caudal

toward the lower part of the body

cell membrane

the tissue that surrounds and protects the contents of the cell by separating them from its external environment

cells

the basic structural and functional units of the body

cephalic

toward the head

chromosomes

the genetic structures located within the nucleus of each cell

communicable disease

any condition that is transmitted from one person to another either by direct or by indirect contact with contaminated objects

congenital disorder

an abnormal condition that exists at the time of birth

connective tissues

support and connect organs and other body tissues

cranial cavity

located within the skull and surrounds and protects the brain

cystic fibrosis

a genetic disorder that is present at birth and affects both the respiratory and digestive systems

cytology

the study of the anatomy, physiology, pathology, and chemistry of the cell

cytoplasm

the material within the cell membrane that is not part of the nucleus

dense connective tissues

form the joints and framework of the body

development disorder

can result in an anomaly or malformation such as the absence of a limb or the presence of an extra toe

distal

situated farthest from the midline or beginning of a body structure

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

dominant gene

when inherited from either parent, the offspring will inherit that genetic condition or characteristic

dorsal

refers to the back of the organ or body

dorsal cavity

located along the back of the body and head and contains organs of the nervous system that coordinate body functions (divided into two portions: cranial, spinal)

Down syndrome

a genetic variation that is associated with characteristic facial appearance, learning disabilities, and physical abnormalities such as heart valve disease

dysplasia

abnormal development or growth of cells, tissues, or organs

embryonic stem cells

undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell

endemic

refers to the ongoing presence of a disease within a population, group, or area

endocrine glands

produce hormones

endothelium

the specialized epithelial tissue that lines the blood and lymph vessels, body cavities, glands, and organs

epidemic

a sudden and widespread outbreak of a disease within a specific population group or area

epidemiologist

a specialist in the study of outbreaks of disease within a population group

epigastric region

located above the stomach

epithelial tissues

form a protective covering for all of the internal and external surfaces of the body

epithelium

the specialized epithelial tissue that forms the epidermis of the skin and the surface layer of mucous membranes

etiology

the study of the causes of diseases

exocrine glands

secrete chemical substances into ducts that lead either to other organs or out of the body

fetal alcohol syndrome

caused by the mother's consumption of alcohol during the pregnancy

food-borne and waterborne transmission

caused by eating or drinking contaminated food or water that has not been properly treated to remove contamination or kill pathogens that are present

frontal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions

functional disorder

produces symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified

gene

a fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity

genetic disorder

a pathological condition caused by an absent or defective gene

genetic mutation

a change of the sequence of a DNA molecule

geneticist

a specialist in the field of genetics

genetics

the study of how genes are transferred from parents to their children and the roles of genes in health and disease

genome

the complete set of genetic information of an individual

geriatrician

a physician who specializes in the care of older people

geriatrics

the study of the medical problems and care of the aged

gland

a group of specialized epithelial cells that are capable of producing secretions

hemophilia

a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which a blood-clotting factor is missing

histologist

a specialist in the study of the organization of tissues at all levels

histology

the study of the structure, composition, and function of tissues

homeostasis

the processes through which the body maintains a constant internal environment

horizontal plane

a flat crosswise plane, such as the horizon

Huntington's disease

a genetic disorder that is passed from parent to child that causes nerve degeneration with symptoms that most often appear in midlife

hyperplasia

the enlargement of an organ or tissue because of an abnormal increase in the number of cells in the tissues

hypertrophy

a general increase in the bulk of a body part or organ that is due to an increase in the size, but not in the number, of cells in the tissues

hypochondric regions

located on the left and right sides of the body and are covered by the lower ribs

hypogastric region

located below the stomach

hypoplasia

the incomplete development of an organ or tissue usually due to a deficiency in the number of cells

iatrogenic illness

an unfavorable response due to prescribed medical treatment

idiopathic disorder

an illness without known cause

iliac regions

located on the left and right sides over the hip bones

indirect contact transmission

refers to situations in which a susceptible person is infected by contact with a contaminated surface

infectious disease

an illness caused by living pathogenic organisms such as bacteria and viruses

inferior

lowermost, below, or toward the feet

inguinal

relating to the groin, refers to the entire lower area of the abdomen

lateral

the direction toward or nearer the side and away from the midline

liquid connective tissues

transports nutrients and waste products throughout the body

loose connective tissue

surrounds various organs and supports both nerve cells and blood vessels

lumbar regions

located on the left and right sides near the inward curve of the spine

medial

the direction toward, or nearer, the midline

mesentery

a fused double layer of the parietal peritoneum that attaches parts of the intestine to the interior abdominal wall

midsagittal plane

the sagittal plane that divides the body into equal left and right halves

muscle tissue

contains cells with the specialized ability to contract and relax

muscular dystrophy

the term used to describe a group of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement

nerve tissue

contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and to conduct electrical impulses

nosocomial infection

a disease acquired in a hospital or clinical setting

nucleus

a structure within the cell that has two important functions: (1) it controls the activities of the cell, and (2) it helps the cell divide

organ

a somewhat independent part of the body that performs a special function

organic disorder

produces symptoms caused by detectable physical changes in the body

pandemic

an outbreak of a disease occurring over a large geographic area, possibly worldwide

parietal peritoneum

the outer layer of the peritoneum that lines the interior of the abdominal wall

pathologist

specialized in the laboratory analysis of tissue samples to confirm or establish a diagnosis

pathology

the study of the nature and cause of disease that involves changes in structure and function

pelvic cavity

the space formed by the hip bones; contains primarily the organs of the reproductive and excretory systems

peritoneum

a multilayered membrane that protects and holds the organs in place within the abdominal cavity

peritonitis

an inflammation of the peritoneum

phenylketonuria

a genetic disorder in which the essential digestive enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing

physiology

the study of the functions of the structures of the body

posterior

situated in the back; on the back part of an organ

prenatal influences

the mother's health, behavior, and the prenatal medical care she does, or does not, receive before delivery

proximal

situated nearest the midline or beginning of a body structure

quadrant

divided into four

recessive gene

when inherited from both parents, the offspring will have that condition; when inherited from only one parent, the offspring will not have the condition

regions of the thorax and abdomen

a descriptive system that divides the abdomen and lower portion of the thorax into nine parts

retroperitoneal

located behind the peritoneum

sagittal plane

a vertical plane that divides the body into unequal left and right portions

spinal cavity

located within the spinal column, surrounds and protects the spinal cord

stem cells

unspecialized cells that are able to renew themselves for long periods of time by cell division

superior

uppermost, above, or toward the head

Tay-Sachs disease

a fatal genetic disorder in which harmful quantities of a fatty substance build up in tissues and nerve cells in the brain

thoracic cavity

surrounds and protects the heart and lungs

tissue

a group or layer of similarly specialized cells that join together to perform certain specific functions

transverse plane

a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions

umbilical region

surrounds the umbilicus

umbilicus

commonly known as the belly button or navel

vector-borne transmission

the spread of certain disease due to the bite of a vector

ventral

refers to the front, or belly side, or the organ or body

ventral cavity

located along the front of the body, contains the body organs that maintain homeostasis

vertical plane

an up-and-down plane that is a right angle to the horizon

visceral peritoneum

the inner layer of the peritoneum that surrounds the organs of the abdominal cavity

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