Medical Terminology, Chapter 4 Terms, The Muscular System

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abduction

the movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

Achilles tendinitis

a painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon caused by excessive stress being placed on that tendon

adduction

the movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

adhesion

a band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally

antispasmodic

administered to suppress smooth muscle contractions of the stomach, intestine, or bladder

ataxia

the inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movement

atonic

lacking normal muscle tone or strength

atrophy

weakness or wearing away of body tissues and structures

biceps brachii

biceps, formed from two divisions

bradykinesia

extreme slowness in movement

cardioplegia

paralysis of heart muscle (cardiac arrest)

carpal tunnel release

the surgical enlargement of the carpal tunnel or cutting of the carpal ligament to relieve nerve pressure

carpal tunnel syndrome

occurs when the tendons that pass through the carpal tunnel are chronically overused and become inflamed and swollen

chronic fatigue syndrome

a disorder of unknown cause that affects many body systems

circumduction

the circular movement at the far end of a limb

compartment syndrome

involves the compression of nerves and blood vessels due to swelling within the enclosed space created by the fascia that separates groups of muscles

contraction

the tightening of a muscle

contracture

the permanent tightening of fascia, muscles, tendons, ligaments, or skin that occurs when normally elastic connective tissues are replaced with nonelastic fibrous tissues

cramp

a localized muscle spasm named for its cause

deep tendon reflexes

tested with a reflex hammer that is used to strike a tendon

deltoid muscle

forms the muscular cap of the shoulder

depression

the act of lowering a body part

dorsiflexion

bends the foot upward at the ankle

dyskinesia

the distortion or impairment of voluntary movement such as in a tic or spasm

dystaxia

a mild form of ataxia

dystonia

a condition of abnormal muscle tone that causes the impairment of voluntary muscle movement

electroneuromyography

a diagnostic procedure for testing and recording neuromuscular activity by the electric stimulation of the nerve trunk that carries fibers to and from the muscle

electromyography

a diagnostic test that measures the electrical activity within muscle fibers in response to nerve stimulation

elevation

the act of raising or lifting a body part

epicondylitis

inflammation of the tissues surrounding the elbow

ergonomics

the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment

exercise physiologist

a specialist who works under the supervision of a physician to develop, implement, and coordinate exercise programs, and administer medical tests to promote physical fitness

extension

increasing the angle between two bones or the straightening of a limb

fascia

the sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles or groups of muscles

fasciitis

inflammation of a fascia

fascioplasty

the surgical repair of fascia

fasciotomy

a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure

fibromyalgia syndrome

a debilitating chronic condition characterized by fatigue, diffuse and or specific muscle, joint, or bone pain, and a wide range of other symptoms

flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

ganglion cyst

a harmless fluid-filled swelling that occurs most commonly on the outer surface of the wrist

gluteus maximus

the largest muscle of the buttock

hamstring group

located at the back of the upper leg, consists of three separate muscles: biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus

hamstring injury

a strain or tear on any of the three hamstring muscles

heel spur

a calcium deposit in the plantar fascia nears its attachment to the calcaneus bone that can be one of the causes of plantar fasciitis

hemiparesis

slight paralysis or weakness affecting one side of the body

hemiplegia

total paralysis affecting only one side of the body

hyperextension

the extreme or overextension of a limb or body part beyond its normal limit

hyperkinesia

abnormally increased muscle function or activity

hypertonia

a condition of excessive tone of the skeletal muscles

hypokinesia

abnormally decreased muscle function or activity

hypotonia

a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles

impingement syndrome

occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint

insertion

the place where the muscle ends by attaching to a bonen or tendon; the more moveable attachment, located farthest from the midline of the body

intermittent claudication

pain in the leg muscles that occurs during exercise and is relieved by rest

muscle fibers

the long, slender cells that make up muscles

muscle innervations

the stimulation of a muscle by an impulse transmitted by a motor nerve

muscle tone

the state of balanced muscle tension that makes normal posture, coordination, and movement possible

muscular dystrophy

a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement, without affecting the nervous system

myalgia

tenderness or pain in the muscles

myasthenia gravis

a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles

myocele

the herniation of muscle substance through a tear in the fascia surrounding it

myectomy

the surgical excision of a portion of a muscle

myocardial muscles

form the muscular walls of the heart

myoclonus

the sudden, involuntary jerking of a muscle or group of muscles

myofascial

pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia

myofascial pain syndrome

a chronic pain disorder that affects muscles and fascia throughout the body

myofascial release

a specialized soft tissue manipulation technique used to ease the pain of conditions such as fibromyalgia, myofascial pain syndrome, movement restrictions, temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ), and carpal tunnel syndrome

myolysis

the degeneration of muscle tissue

myomalacia

abnormal softening of muscle tissue

myoparesis

a weakness or slight muscular paralysis

myorrhaphy

the surgical suturing of a muscle wound

myorrhexis

the rupture or tearing of a muscle

myotomy

a surgical incision into a muscle

myotonia

a neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles after a voluntary contraction

myoplasty

the surgical repair of a muscle

neurologist

a physician who specializes in treating the causes of paralysis and similar muscular disorders in which there is a loss of function

neuromuscular

pertaining to the relationship between nerve and muscle

neuromuscular blocker

a drug that causes temporary paralysis by blocking the transmission of nerve stimuli to the muscles

nocturnal myoclonus

jerking of the limbs that can occur normally as a person is falling asleep

oblique

slanted or at an angle

occupational therapy

consists of activities to promote recovery and rehabilitation to assist patients in normalizing their ability to perform the activities of daily living (ADL)

origin

the place where the muscle begins; the less moveable attachment located nearest the midline of the body

overuse injuries

minor tissue injuries that have not been given time to heal

overuse tendinitis

inflammation of tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of a joint

paralysis

the loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements in a muscle through disease or injury to its nerve supply

paraplegia

the paralysis of both legs and the lower part of the body

physiatrist

a physician who specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation with the focus on restoring function

physical therapy

treatment to prevent disability or to restore functioning through the use of exercise

plantar fasciitis

an inflammation of the plantar fascia on the sole of the foot

plantar flexion

bends the foot downward at the ankle

polymyositis

a muscle disease characterized by the simultaneous inflammation and weakening of voluntary muscles in many parts of the body

pronation

the act of rotating the arm or leg so that the palm of the hand or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremeties

range of motion testing (ROM)

a diagnostic procedure to evaluate joint mobility and muscle strength

rectus

in straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body

relaxation

when a muscle returns to its original form

repetitive stress disorders

a variety of muscular conditions that result from repeated motions performed in the course of normal work, daily activities, or recreation such as sports

rheumatologist

a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of arthritis and disorders such as osteoporosis, fibromyalgia and tendonitis that are characterized by inflammation in the joints and connective tissues

RICE

Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

rotation

turns a bone on its own axis

rotator cuff tendinitis

an inflammation of the tendons of the rotator cuff

ruptured rotator cuff

develops when rotator cuff tendinitis is left untreated or if the overuse continues

sarcopenia

the loss of muscle mass, strength, and function that comes with aging

shin splint

a painful condition caused by the muscle tearing away from the tibia

singultus

myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm (hiccups)

skeletal muscle relaxant

administered to relax certain muscles and to relieve the stiffness, pain, and discomfort caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries

skeletal muscles

attached to the bones of the skeleton and make body motions possible

smooth muscles

located in the walls of internal organs such as the digestive tract, blood vessels, and ducts leading from glands

spasm

a sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of one or more muscles

spasmodic torticollis

a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side

sphincter

a ring-like muscle that tightly constructs the opening of a passageway

spinal cord injury

the type of paralysis is determined by the level of the vertebra closest to the injury

sports medicine physician

specializes in treating sports-related injuries of the bones, joints, and muscles

sprain

an injury of a joint, such as ankle, knee, or wrist that usually involves a stretched or torn ligament

strain

an injury to the body of the muscle or to the attachment of a tendon

supination

the act of rotating the arm or the leg so that the palm of the hand, or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward

tendinitis

an inflammation of the tendons caused by excessive or unusual use of the joint

tendon

a narrow band of nonelastic, dense, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

tenectomy

the surgical resection of a portion of a tendon or tendon sheath

tenodesis

the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone

tenodynia

pain in a tendon

tenolysis

the release of a tendon from adhesions

tenoplasty

the surgical repair of a tendon

tenorrhaphy

surgical suturing together of the divided ends of a tendon

tenotomy

the surgical division of a tendon for relief of a deformity caused by the abnormal shortening of a muscle

therapeutic ultrasound

utilizes high-frequency sound waves to treat muscle injuries by generating heat deep within muscle tissue

transverse

in a crosswise direction

triceps brachii

triceps, formed from three divisions

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