Medical Terminology, Chapter 13, The Endocrine System

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acromegaly

abnormal enlargement of the extremeties (hands and feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone after puberty

Addison's disease

occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone

adrenalitis

inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenocorticotroic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex

aldosterone

regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys

aldosterone (ALD)

aids in regulating the levels of salt and water in the body

aldosteronism

an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessive secretion of aldosterone

anabolic steroids

chemically related to the male sex hormone testosterone

androgens

influence sex-related characteristics

androgens

hormones that influence sex-related characteristics

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted

antithyroid drug

a medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

calcitonin (CAL)

works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues

chemical thyroidectomy

the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells

Conn's syndrome

a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone

corticosteroids

the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex

cortisol

regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body; also has an anti-inflammatory action

cortisone

the synethetic equivalent of corticosteroids produced by the body

cretinism

a congenital form of hypothyroidism

Cushing's syndrome

caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol

diabetes insipidus

caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond appropriately to this hormone

diabetes mellitus

a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both

diabetic coma

caused by very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia)

diabetic retinopathy

occurs when diabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior segment of the eyeball

electrolytes

mineral substances, such as sodium and potassium, that are normally found in the blood

endocrinologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands

endocrinopathy

any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system

epinephrine (Epi, EPI)

stimulates the sympathetic nervous system; a synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks

estrogen (E)

develops and maintains the female secondary sex characteristics and regulates the menstrual cycle

exophthalmos

an abnormal protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit

fasting blood sugar test

measures the glucose (blood sugar) levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

in the female, stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova (eggs); in the male, stimulates the production of sperm

fructosamine test

measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks

gamete

a reproductive cell, sperm in the male and ova (eggs) in the female

gestational diabetes

a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies

gigantism

abnormal overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion o fthe growth hormone before puberty

glucagon (GCG)

increases the level of glucose in the bloodstreasm

glucose

blood sugar; the basic form of energy used by the body

glycogen

the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose

goiter

an abnormal nonmalignant enlargement of the thyroid gland

gonadotropin

any hormone that stimulates the gonads

gonads

ovaries in females and testicles in males; gamete-producing glands

Graves' disease

an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism and is characterized by goiter and/or exophthalmos

growth hormone (GH)

regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues

gynecomastia

the condition of excessive mammary development in the male

Hashimoto's thyroiditis

an autoimmune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destroy the cells of the thyroid gland

hemoglobin A1c testing

a blood test that measures the average blood glucose level over the previous 3-4 months

home blood glucose monitoring

measures the current blood sugar level

hormones

chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activities of specific cells, organs, or both

human growth hormone

a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insufficient for normal development

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

stimulates the secretion of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy

hypercalcemia

characterized by abnormally high concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones

hypercrinism

a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland

hyperglycemia

an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood

hypergonadism

the condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hyperinsulinism

the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream

hyperparathyroidism

the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone, causing the condition known as hypercalcemia

hyperpituitarism

pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the ituitary gland

hyperthyroidism

an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones

hypocalcemia

characterized by abnormally low levelsl of calcium in the blood

hypocrinism

a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland

hypoglycemia

an abnormally low concentration of glucose in the blood

hypogonadism

the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands

hypoparathyroidism

caused by an insufficnent or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone

hypopituitarism

a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland

hypothyroidism

caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as an underactive thyroid

insulin

regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulates the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage

insulin shock

caused by very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)

insulinoma

a benign tumor of the pancreas that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin

interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)

stimulates ovulation in the female; stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male

lactogenic hormone (LTH)

stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk

laparoscopic adrenalectomy

a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands

leptin

a hormone secreted by adipocytes (fat cells)

lobectomy

the surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland; also used to describe the removal of a lobe of the liver, brain, or lung

luteinizing hormone (LH)

in the female, stimulates ovulation; in the male, stimulates testosterone secretion

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

increases the production of melanin in melanocytes of the skin

melatonin

influences the sleep-wakefulness cycles

myxedema

caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion; also known as adult hypothyroidism

neurohormones

secreted by specialized cells of the brain

norepinephrine

stimulates the sympathetic nervous system

oral glucose tolerance test

performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia

osteitis fibrosa

a complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed and may develop cysts

oxytocin (OXT)

stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. It also causes milk to flow from the mammary glands after childbirth.

pancreas

a feather-shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems

pancreatalgia

pain in the pancreas

pancreatectomy

the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas

pancreatic islets

those parts of the pancreas that have endocrine functions

pancreatitis

an inflammation of the pancreas

parathyroid glands

embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland, works with the hormone calcitonin that is secreted by the thyroid gland to regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues

parathyroidectomy

the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands

pheochromocytoma

a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine

pineal gland

a very small endocrine glands that is located in the central portion o fthe brain

pinealectomy

the surgical removal of the pineal gland

pinealoma

a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the production of melatonin; can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle

pituitarism

any disorder of pituitary function

pituitary adenoma

a slow-growing benign tumor of the pituitary gland; functioning pituitary tumors often produce hormones in large and unregulated amounts; nonfunctioning pituitary tumors do not produce significant amounts of hormones

pituitary gland

hangs from the infuldibulum below the hypothalamus and functions to secrete hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands

polyphagia

excessive hunger

polyuria

excessive urination

progesterone

completes preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy

prolactinoma

a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much prolactin

puberty

the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually

steroid

any one of a large number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially produced as medications to relieve swelling and inflammation in conditions such as asthma

synthetic thyroid hormones

administered to replace lost thyroid function

testosterone

secreted by the testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics

thymectomy

the surgical removal of the thymus gland

thymitis

an inflammation of the thymus gland

thymosin

stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immune system

thymus

located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity

thyroid gland

a butterfly-shaped glands that lies on either side of the larynx, just below the thyroid cartilage

thyroid scan

measures thyroid function

thyroid storm

a relatively rare, lift-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland

thyroid-stimulating hormone assay

a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone

thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

regulate the rate of metabolism

Type 1 diabetes

an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells

Type 2 diabetes

an insulin resistance disorder

virile

having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male

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