Medical Terminology, Chapter 14, The Reproductive Systems

219 terms by Lefty66 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

abortion

the interruption or termination of pregnancy before the fetus is viable

abruption placentae

an abnormal disorder in which the placenta separates from the uterine wall before the birth of the fetus

afterbirth

the plancenta expelled after delivery of the newborn

amenorrhea

an abnormal absence of menstrual periods for 3 or more months

amniocentesis

a surgical puncture with a needle to obtain a specimen of amniotic fluid

amnionic fluid

also known as amniotic fluid; the liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating movements

amniotic cavity

the fluid-filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac

amniotic sac

the innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus

andropause

referred to as male menopause; is marked by the decrease of the male hormone testosterone

anorchism

the absence of one or both testicles

anovulation

the absence of ovulation when it would be normally expected

anteflexion

the normal position of the uterus, where the body of the uterus is bent forward

antepartum

refers to the final state of pregnancy just before the onset of labor

Apgar score

a scale of 1-10 to evaluate a newborn infant's physical status at 1 and 5 minutes after birth

areola

dark-pigmented area that surrounds the nipple

azoospermia

the absence of sperm in the semen

bacterial vaginosis

a condition in women in which there is an abnormal overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina

balanitis

an inflammation of the glans penis that is usually caused by poor hygiene in men who have not had the foreskin removed by circumcision

Bartholin's glands

produce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina

Braxton Hicks contractions

intermittent painless uterine contractions that occur with increasing frequency as the pregnancy progresses

breast augmentation

mammoplasty performed to increase breast size

breast reduction

mammoplasty performed to decrease and reshape excessively large, heavy breasts

breech presentation

one in which the buttocks or feet of the fetus are positioned to enter the birth canal first instead of the head

bulbourethral glands

located just below the prostrate gland; during sexual arousa, these glands secrete a fluid known as pre-ejaculate

caesarean section

the delivery of the child through an incision in the maternal abdominal and uterinen walls

castration

the surgical removal or destruction of both testicles

cervical cancer

the second-most common cancer in women and usually affects women between the ages of 45 and 65 years

cervical dysplasia

the growth of abnormal cells in the cervix

cervicitis

an inflammation of the cervix that is usually caused by an infection

cervix

the lower, narrow portion of the uterus that extends into the vagina

Chlamydia

the most commonly reported STD in the US; is highly contagious and requires early treatment with antibiotics

chorion

the thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo

chorionic villus sampling

the examination of cells retrieved from the chorionic villi

circumcision

the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis

clitoris

an organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and the vaginal orifice

coitus

sexual intercourse

colostrum

a specialized form of milk that delivers essential nutrients and antibodies in a form that the newborn can digest

colpopexy

the surgical fixation of a prolapsed vagina to a surrounding structure such as the abdominal wall

colporrhaphy

the surgical suturing of a tear in the vagina

colporrhexis

tearing or laceration of the vaginal wall

colposcopy

the direct visual examination of the tissues of the cervix and vagina

conception

occurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilizes the descending ovum

conization

the surgical removal of a cone-shaped specimen of tissue from the cervix

contraceptive

a measure taken, or a device used, to lessen the likelihood of conception and pregnancy

corpus

the middle portion of the uterus

corpus luteum

secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle

cryptorchidism

a developmental defect in which one or both of the testicles fail to descend into the normal position in the scrotum

dilation and curettage

a surgical procedure in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrium of the uterus is scraped away; also known as a D&C

due date

calculated from the first day of the last menstrual period

dysmenorrhea

pain caused by uterine cramps during a menstrual period

eclampsia

a more serious form of preeclampsia, characterized by convulsions and sometimes coma

ectopic pregnancy

a potentially dangerous condition in which a fertilized egg is implanted and begins to develop outside of the uterus

ejaculatory duct

begins at the vas deferens, passes through the prostate glands, and empties into the urethra; a reflex action caused by these ducts causes ejaculation

embryo

the developing child from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy

endocervicitis

an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining of the cervix

endometrial biopsy

a small amount of the tissue from the lining of the uterus is removed for microscopic examination

endometriosis

a condition in which patches of endometrial tissue escape the uterus and become attached to other structures in the pelvic cavity

endometrium

the inner layer of the uterus

endovaginal ultrasound

performed to determine the cause of abnormal vaginal bleeding

epididymis

a coiled tube at the supper part of each testicle

epididymitis

inflammation of the epididymis that is frequently caused by the spread of infection from the urethra or the bladder

episiorrhaphy

the surgical suturing to repair an episiotomy

episiotomy

a surgical incision made through the perineum to enlarge the vaginal origice to prevent tearing of the tissues as the infant moves out of the birth canal

fallopian tubes

tubes which extend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near, but not attached to, an ovary

fetal monitoring

the use of an electronic device to record the fetal heart rate and the maternal uterine contractions during labor

fetus

the developing child from the 9th week of pregnancy to the time of birth

fibroadenoma

a round, firm, rubbery mass that arises from excess growth of glandular and connective tissue in the breast

fibrocysticbreast disease

the presence of single or multiple benign cysts in the breasts

fimbriae

the fringed, finger-like extensions of the opening at the end of the fallopian tubes

first trimester screening

performed between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy and involves an ultrasound and a finger stick blood test

follicle

a fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum (egg)

foreskin

a retractable double-layered fold of skin and mucous membrane that covers and protects the glans penis

fraternal twins

result from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells

fundus

the bulging, rounded part of the uterus above the entrance of the fallopian tubes

galactorrhea

the production of breast milk in a women who is not breastfeeding

genital herpes

an STD caused by the herpex simplex virus type 2

genital warts

an STD caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV); highly contagious

genitalia

the organs of reproduction and their associated structures

gestation

the period of development of the child in the mother's uterus; lasts approximately 280 days

glans penis

the head of the penis

gonorrhea

a highly contagious condition caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae

gynecologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the female reproductive system

hemospermia

the presence of blood in the seminal fluid

hormone replacement therapy

the use of the female hormones estrogen and progestin to replace those the body no longer produces during and after perimenopause

human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

transmitted through exposure to infected body fluids, particularly through sexual intercourse with an infected partner

hydrocele

a fluid-filled sac in the scrotum along the spermatic cord leading from the testicles

hymen

a mucous membrane that partially covers this opening before a woman has had intercourse

hypermenorrhea

an excessive amount of menstrual flow over a period of more than 7 days

hypomenorrhea

an unusually small amount of menstrual flow during a shortened regular menstrual period

hysterectomy

the surgical removal of the uterus

hysterosalpingography

a radiographic examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes

hysteroscopy

the direct visual examination of the interior of the uterus and fallopian tubes

identical twins

formed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to form two embryos

impotence

the inability of the male to achieve or maintain a penile erection; also known as erectile dysfunction

infertility

the inability of a couple to achieve pregnancy after 1 year of regular, unprotected intercourse, or the inability of a woman to carry a pregnancy to live birth

infertility specialist

diagnoses and treats problems associated with conception and maintaining pregnancy

infundibulum

the funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary

intrauterine device

a molded plastic contraceptive inserted through the cervix into the uterus

labia major and labia minora

the vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalis and the urethral meatus

lactation

the process of forming and secreting milk from the breasts as nourishment for the infant

lactiferous ducts

milk ducts which carry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple

leukorrhea

a profuse, whitish mucus discharge from the uterus and vagina

lochia

the postpartum vaginal discharge that typically continues for 4-6 weeks after childbirth

low sperm count

a sperm count below 20 million/ml; also known as oligospermia

mammary glands

the milk-producing glands that develop during puberty

mammoplasty

a general term for a cosmetic operation on the breasts

mastalgia

pain in the breast

mastitis

a breast infection that is most frequently caused by bacteria that enter the breast tissue during breastfeeding

mastopexy

mammoplasty to affix sagging breasts ina more elevated position

meconium

the greenish material that collects in the intestine of a fetus and forms the first stools of a newborn

menarche

the beginning of the menstrual function

menometrorrhagia

excessive uterine bleeding at both the usual time of menstrual periods and at other irregular intervals

menopause

the normal termination of the menstrual function

menstruation

the normal, periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg from the uterus

metrorrhea

an abnormal discharge, such as mucus or pus, from the uterus

mons pubis

a rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis

multiparous

a woman who has given birth two or more times

multiples

the term used to describe a birth involving more than two infants

myomectomy

the surgical removal of uterine fibroids

myometrium

the muscular middle layer of uterine tissue

navel

belly button

neonate

newborn infant during the first 4 weeks after birth

neonatologist

a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the newborn

nipple

breast milk flows through the nipple

normal sperm count

20-120 million or more sperm per millileter of semen

nulligravida

a woman who has never been pregnant

nullipara

a women who has never borne a viable child

obstetrician

a physician who specializes in providing medical care to women during pregnancy, childbirth, and immediately thereafter

oligomenorrhea

the term used to describe infrequent or very light menstruation in a women with previously normal periods

oophoritis

inflammation of an ovary

orchidectomy

the surgical removal of one or both testicles

orchiopexy

endoscopic surgery to move an undescended testicle into its normal position in the scrotum

ova

the female gametes; also known as eggs

ovarian cancer

originates within the walls of the ovaries

ovariectomy

the surgical removal of one or both ovaries

ovaries

a pair of small, almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen, one on either side of the uterus

ovariorrhexis

the rupture of an ovary

ovulation

the release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of the ovary

Papanicolaou test

Pap smear; an exfoliative biopsy for the detection of conditions that can be early indicators of cervical cancer

pediatrician

a physician who specializes in diagnosing, treating, and preventing disorders and diseases of children

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

any inflammation of the female reproductive organs that is not associated with surgery or pregnancy

pelvimetry

a radiographic study to measure the dimentions of the pelvis to evaluate its capacity to allow passage of the fetus through the birth canal

penis

the male sex organ that transports the sperm into the female vagina

perimenopause

the term used to designate the transition phase between regular menstrual periods and no periods at all

perimetrium

the tough, membranous outer layer of the uterus

perineum

the external surface region in both males and females between the pubic symphysis and the coccyx

Peyronie's disease

a form of sexual dysfunction in which the penis is bent or curved during erection; also known as penile curvature

phimosis

a narrowing of the opening of the foreskin so that it cannot be retracted (pulled back) to expose the glans penis

placenta

a temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products between the mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix

See More

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set