rebirth/ revival --> everyone was obsessed with God, so other things were reborn
"the cradle of the Renaissance". it is the birth of the Renaissance. wealthy city-state and center of trade. attracted artists, architects, and writes because of Medici patronage.
Political and economic change
growth of centralized monarchy except Italy. creativity in arts and science. became secular
individual city-states fighting for land and power
non-religious, wanting money and power
they unofficially, never elected or appointed; no real power but control through power and money, governed Florence. Very rich banking family. Known for: ruthless ambition and getting what they want through evil. power extended to western Europe. Everyone scared of them.
Lorenzo de Medici
aka "The Magnificent" because he spent a lot of money on art and artist. first to take control.
financial supporter of the arts and sciences. wanted to look legit and they wanted their city to be the best.
Characteristics of Renaissance
Urban society: large, wealthy cities which lead to powerful merchant class (patrons). Rebirth of interest in the Classical world: influenced by Greeks and Romans. Secular society: no longer controlled by religion, "me" society, focused on being a well-rounded person and reach full potential.
Results of Renaissance
new attitude towards life and a spirit of curiosity. challenges to religious authority and long held beliefs (reformation). great achievements in science (Scientific Revolution). Humanism. Great achievements in literature. great achievements in art.
a new intellectual philosophy about the world; what can you accomplish, what is the potential of human beings, is there more than heaven. Focused on worldly subjects rather than religious. emphasis on thinking for yourself. didn't replace Christianity but influenced dominant members.
Father of Humanism. He was a poet, first to write sonnets, they are about himself. He wrote Canzoniere. He wrote about his love and after she died his grief.
influenced by Classical world and humanism. new emphasis on individual achievement reflected in popular "how-to" books.
writer, diplomat and frequent visitor to homes of important people --> entertained/ had fun with people in exchange for food and shelter. wrote the Book of Courtier.
The Book of Courtier
portrait of ideal courtier (professional visitor). Handbook for aristocrats. Inspired by humanist ideas and code of chivalry.
well-rounded, versatile, interesting and interested in people. know when to be funny or serious, talk or be quiet. Follow the Code of chivalry. women were to act welcoming and gracious. know/talk about lots of things.
political philosopher. exiled by Medici. wanted to see Italy united under a strong leader to keep others from invading. wrote The Prince.
book. Church disliked it. portrait of ideal leader. textbook for rulers on how to acquire and keep power. It says rulers are ungrateful, fickle, lairs and deceivers; must rule through fear.
very different from Middle Ages. Middle Ages was religious and not realistic.
studied movement and anatomy to depict human body accurately. attempted to depict individuals with emotions. people and objects in nature world. linear perspective: 3 dimensional, depth, distant objects smaller.
Secular vs. Religious
religious art created for churches, financed by Pope. had portraits and nudes. wanted to display beauty and wealth.
inspiration of classical world
nudes - never portrayed in the art of the Middle Ages but very popular in Greek and Roman art. Greek and Roman arches and columns. beauty, balance and harmony just as in Classical world.
Types of art
painting, sculpture, architecture
Sistine Chapel. paint on wet. you must cover the wall with plaster and paint before dries.
competed for patronage of wealthy merchants. wanted recognition and glory for themselves and individuals. expected fame and fortune for achievements. known by first names.
Early Renaissance Artists
They are starting to be influenced by the classical world but it is not perfect yet. the architecture was nothing like Middle Ages.