what is not recycled through earths ecosystems
where do producers get their energy
from the soil
3 processes that would increase carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
cellular respiration, death decompositions, burning fossil fuels
one process that would decrease carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
ecological succession is the series of a predictable changes that occurs in a community over time
an alga and a fungus living together, the alga is photosynthetic and provides food, the fungus provides moisture and a home for the alga
what property of water makes it an ideal material for transporting necessary chemical substances?
water is polar and therefore make an exellent solvent
when cells freeze and burst, water is unusual beacsue the solid form is less dense than the liquid form, when water freezes it expands and ruptures the cell membrane, killing the cell
a water strider can sit on the surface of the water. is the water strider denser or less dense that the water?
why does the water strider sit on water surface and does not sink?
because water molecules are polar, the slightly negative oxygen of one water molecule will hyfrogen bond to the slightly positive hydrogen atom of another water molecule
causes surface tension and the water strider does not break the hydrogen bonds and therefore floats
starch from food is a source of _____ for organisms. starch is a type of ______________
to what class of macromolecules do enzymes belong? and what is its monomer?
proteins and the monomer is amino acids
what is the major role of lipids within a cell?
they are the major structural component of cell membranes
a polymer is made up of many
what organelle is used directly to make proteins in all cells?
what cell part is directly involved in transporting substances into or out of a cell?
the cell membrane
what part of a cell converts nutrients from sugar into energy?
3 cell structures that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells?
chloroplasts, cell wall (made of cellulose) and the large central vacuole
euglena and paramecium are classified as eukaryotes because they both have
a true nucleous with a nuclear membrane and organelles surrounded by membranes (phospholipid bilayers)
very simple celled organism with DNA in a nucleoid region. had DNA but isnt surrounded by nuclear membrane, lack membrane bound organelles
main structural component of the cell wall of a plant
cellulose (which is refered to as a dietary fiber, cant be digested by humans for energy, important part of diet)
process in which water moves across selectively permeable membrane
what is osmosis?
movement of water that goes from high concentration to low concentration and does not require the cell to use energy or ATP
white oak trees make their own food. their cells contain structures that capture energy from the sun. what are these structures?
organsisms that live in the intestines of cows dont need oxygen. how do they obtain energy?
humans require oxygen and get their energy from:
aerobic respiration. most parts of this process occur in the mitochondria
equation for aerobic cellular respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2
------- > 6CO2 +6 H2O + ATP
equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 6H2O
----------> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
what macromolecules control the reaction rate of photosynthesis?
DNA is made up of repeating monomers called:
3 parts of a monomer
sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate group and nitrogenous base
RNA has ______ as its sugar instead of deoxyribose
other type of nucleic acid (besides DNA)
when a error happens in base pair substitution, change in base pair sequence
a scientist is trying to develop treatment to stop cancer cells from dividing, the name of the process that will stop if the treatment
mitotic cell division
what process must occur during interphase to prepare for mitotic cell division?
DNA replication occurs during the S portion of interphase
mitotic cell division occurs where?
in the nucleous of the cell
if mitotic cell division is occuring in a single celled organism then its purpose is
if mitotic cell division is occuring in a multicellular organism then the purpose of the process is for:
growth or repair of damaged tissue or replacement of worn out cells
a portion of DNA that has the info to make one protein is called a:
how many nucleotides are needed to code for one amino acid?