Study of the organization, structure, (morphology) and form of the body and its parts.
Study of functions of the body parts. What they do and how they do it.
Form follows function
The conservation of a part will ditate the function or vice-versa.
From most microscopic to largest, the body is organized in this manner:
Atoms, molecules (and macromolecules), organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism.
the sum total of all chemical reactions in the body that break down and build up substances.
affect and be affected by all functions of the body such as heart rate, breathing, etc.
Characteristics of Life Movement
change in position of the body or a body part; motion of an organ.
reaction to change inside or outside the body.
increase in size without change in shape
making new organisms and/or new cells.
exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and the release of energy from foods.
breakdown of food into simpler substances that can be used by the body
passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
movement of substances in body fluids.
changing absorbed substances into chemically different forms.
removal of wastes
Requirements of Organisms Water
metabolic processes, transportation, regulating body temp.
nutrients, energy, building blocks
releases energy from food
energy; byproduct of metabolic
a force applied to something; atmospheric pressure; hydrostatic pressure.
maintaining a stable internal environment even if external environment changes
help the body maintain stability
receive info about the conditions of the internal environment.
tells what a particular value SHOULD be (Ex. body temp, pulse)
make responses that alter conditions in the internal environment to push it towards the set point
Two types of feedback
Negative and positive feedback
when correcting the problem brings the value back to normal, and the action of effectors gradually shut down.
when the body is stimulated to get further AWAY from the set point on purpose.
cavities, membranes, and organ systems.
The body can be divided into
appendicular and axial portions
upper and lower limbs - no cavities. Ex. arms, legs
head, neck, and trunk...which includes a dorsal and ventral cavity
organs within the dorsal and ventral cavity
Dorsal cavity can be divided into
cranial cavity and vertebral canal
Ventral cavity is made up of
thoracic cavity and and abdominopelvic cavity separated by the diaphragm
divides the thorax into right and left halves
can be divided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
Smaller cavities in the head
oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities.