← Anatomy and Physiology Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All Anatomy Study of the organization, structure, (morphology) and form of the body and its parts. Physiology Study of functions of the body parts. What they do and how they do it. Form follows function The conservation of a part will ditate the function or vice-versa. From most microscopic to largest, the body is organized in this manner: Atoms, molecules (and macromolecules), organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism. Metabolism the sum total of all chemical reactions in the body that break down and build up substances. Metabolism can affect and be affected by all functions of the body such as heart rate, breathing, etc. *Characteristics of Life* Movement change in position of the body or a body part; motion of an organ. *CoL* Responsiveness reaction to change inside or outside the body. *CoL* Growth increase in size without change in shape *CoL* Reproduction making new organisms and/or new cells. *CoL* Respiration exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and the release of energy from foods. *CoL* Digestion breakdown of food into simpler substances that can be used by the body *CoL* Absorption passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids. *CoL* Circulation movement of substances in body fluids. *CoL* Assimilation changing absorbed substances into chemically different forms. *CoL* Excretion removal of wastes *Requirements of Organisms* Water metabolic processes, transportation, regulating body temp. *RoO* Foods nutrients, energy, building blocks *RoO* Oxygen releases energy from food *RoO* Heat energy; byproduct of metabolic *RoO* Pressure a force applied to something; atmospheric pressure; hydrostatic pressure. Homeostasis maintaining a stable internal environment even if external environment changes Homeostatic Mechanisms help the body maintain stability Receptors receive info about the conditions of the internal environment. Set point tells what a particular value SHOULD be (Ex. body temp, pulse) Effectors make responses that alter conditions in the internal environment to push it towards the set point Two types of feedback Negative and positive feedback Negative feedback when correcting the problem brings the value back to normal, and the action of effectors gradually shut down. Positive feedback when the body is stimulated to get further AWAY from the set point on purpose. Major features cavities, membranes, and organ systems. The body can be divided into appendicular and axial portions Appendicular portion upper and lower limbs - no cavities. Ex. arms, legs Axial portion head, neck, and trunk...which includes a dorsal and ventral cavity Dorsal back Ventral front Viscera organs within the dorsal and ventral cavity Dorsal cavity can be divided into cranial cavity and vertebral canal Cranial head Vertebral spine Ventral cavity is made up of thoracic cavity and and abdominopelvic cavity separated by the diaphragm Thoracic chest Mediastinum divides the thorax into right and left halves Abdominopelvic can be divided into the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity Smaller cavities in the head oral, nasal, orbital, and middle ear cavities.