What are the parts of the male reproductive system?
seminal vesicles, bladder, vas deferens/sperm duct, penis, urethra, testes, scrotum, epididymis, anus, Cowper's gland, prostate
What is the path that sperm travel?
testes, epididymis, vas deferens/sperm duct, urethra
•2 testes (male gonads), in a sac called scrotum
•produces sperm (male gametes) in large #s in seminiferous tubules
•produce male sex hormone--testosterone--regulates sperm production & secondary sexual characteristics
the time when boys begin to produce sperm and have body changes
stores the large # of sperm until they are ejaculated out through the penis during sexual intercourse
Vas Deferens/Sperm Duct
transports sperm from the testes to the urethra
Accessory Glands that produce semen
Cowper's gland, seminal vesicles, prostate gland
the fluid produced to protect sperm from dehydration and the acidic environment of the female tract after sexual intercourse. also allows sperm to move more easily.
•the tube that normally carries urine from the urinary bladder
•when semen containing sperm is ejaculated, it also travels out thru urethra, but prostate gland enlarges to block off any urine from the bladder at that time.
•the urethra is the tube inside the penis.
•during sexual intercourse, spongy cells that surround urethra fill with blood, penis becomes firm and erect.
What are the parts of the female reproductive system?
Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, cervix, ovary
What is the path the egg travels?
ovary, Fallopian tube/oviduct, uterus/womb, cervix, vagina
•2 ovaries (female gonads)
•produces eggs/ova (female gametes), female sex hormones (estrogen & progesterone) that regulate menstrual cycle, pregnancy, & secondary sexual characteristics
•at birth, females have all eggs formed, in an immature state
•after puberty & before menopause, 1 egg released about every 28 days from each ovary
the time during teenage years when females start to release eggs. generally occurs a few years earlier for females than males.
the time when females stop releasing eggs. usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age.
•connects between ovary and uterus.
•place where conception or fertilization of an egg by a sperm occurs.
•strong muscular & elastic organ where unborn baby develops
•after an egg is released from ovary, a blood-filled lining develops on the walls of the uterus in preparation for nourishing unborn baby. if egg doesn't get fertilized, lining passes out thru vagina over a few days as "periods" or menses
•opening between the uterus and the vagina
•during pregnancy, mucus plug forms across cervix separating uterus from the outside to prevent infection of the unborn baby
•where the penis is inserted during sexual intercourse
•an elastic & muscular organ that contracts during birth to allow for the passage of the baby
female menstrual cycle
•begins at puberty, ceases at menopause
•takes about 28 days
•menstruation is regulated by female sex hormones--estrogen and progesteron
•stages: menstruation, ovulation
"periods"--the release of the blood-filled lining of the uterus if a woman is not pregnant. begins on Day 1 when menstruations or "periods" begin, lasts 5-7 days
the release of the egg from the ovary--about Days 12-16. a woman will become pregnant if a sperm fertilizes egg. occurs a few days after ovulation, when egg is in Fallopian tube. menstruation stops during pregnancy.
•After sexual intercourse, sperm travels up to join w/ egg in fallopian tube.
•single-celled fertilized egg is called a zygote
•23 chromosomes of sperm, 23 chromosomes of egg --> combine in zygote's nucleus, so developing baby has 46 chromosomes
occurs when the male gamete joins with the female gamete inside an organism (ex: humans). advantage: survival rate is higher, but # of offspring is fewer
occurs when the male gamete joins with the female gamete outside organism (ex: fish). often in aquatic environment. many offspring produced, but lower survival rate
•in humans lasts ~40 weeks or 9 months
•1st sign of it is lack of menstruation
•after fertilization in fallopian tube, zygote multiplies to form ball of cells that travels down to uterus
the ball of cells
implants into wall of uterus, then called embryo
organ that develops where implantation occurs. a sac that grows along uterus's wall, contains baby's and mother's blood vessels so nutrients can be exchanged. blood doesn't mix--diffusion. gas exchange, waste leaves, gets nutrients.
grows between placenta and unborn baby's navel.
inside umbilical cord, there are blood vessels that provide nutrients & oxygen to baby, returns wastes like CO2 back to mother's bloodstream
baby is called this as it grows
What happens in the 9th month of pregnancy?
fetus turns upside down, mother's breasts enlarge to prepare for milk production
What happens during birth?
@ about 9 months, "plug" @ cervix releases, amniotic sac breaks, fluid comes out thru vagina. muscular contractions occur to dilate cervix and push baby out headfirst from uterus. more muscular contractions expel placenta. umbilical cord cut close to baby's navel. mother begins breast milk production, begins menstrual cycle again after lining of uterus from pregnancy has been expelled over several days.
when the baby is born legs-first
surgical removal of the baby from the mother's uterus (C-section)
2 sisters or 2 brothers
form when 1 egg and 1 sperm join, but as zygote multiplies to form ball of cells, ball splits.
formed when 2 eggs are fertilized by 2 sperm