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Cold War

Potsdam Conference

meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Truman to discuss post-WWII; compromise: each side would take reparations from its own occupation zone, divided up GER, created Council of Foreign Ministers; marked the end of wartime alliance

Clement Attlee

replaced Churchill as ENG prime minister

Council of Foreign Ministers

issues unsolved at Potsdam Conference were to be discussed in London 1945

Cold War

US and RUS engage in conflict, tension, and competition; undeclared war

disagreements between US/RUS

division of Europe, postwar economic aid, atomic bomb

control postwar Europe

fundamental disagreement between the 2 superpowers; RUS - Poland, Balkans, communist govt; US - self-determination

Iron Curtain

coined by Churchill; boundary divided Soviet-dominated eastern/central Europe from free western Europe

US/ENG

refused to permit RUS to take reparations from industrial West GER; merged zones and championed GER unification

communist regimes

replaced coalition govt in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria; RUS consolidated grip on eastern Europe

Czechoslovakia

climax; March 1948 coup overthrew democratic govt; gave RUS strategic foothold in central Europe

division of Europe

inevitable effect of WWII; caused by competing spheres of influence

WWII -> Russia

15-20 million dead; 30k factories and 40k railroad destroyed; industrialization and agricultural production fallen; needed aid and assistance to reconstruct

postwar assistance

2 forms of aid: loans (ignored) and Lend-Lease (ended)

Averell Harriman

said that economic aid was most effective weapon in dealing with RUS

Lend-Lease fails

Congress instructed not to use it for postwar reconstruction; Truman signed order terminating all shipments to RUS

atomic bomb

used by US in Nagasaki and Hiroshima; raised problems in Soviet-American relations; led to postwar nuclear arms race

Soviet atomic program

Stalin's response to the Manhattan Project

disarmament plan

US plan to turn control of fissionable material, processing plants, and bombs over to international agency

Baruch Plan

disarmament plan with emphasis on multiple stages and inspection; would preserve US atomic monopoly for indefinite future; stressed inspection and control

Andrei Gromyko

RUS diplomat insisted on total ban on production and use of the new weapon and destruction of all existing bombs; advocated immediate disarmament

George Marshall

wartime army chief of staff became secretary of state; major departure in US foreign policy occurred as a result

Dean Acheson

appointed undersecretary of state; given free rein by Marshall to conduct US diplomacy; opposed appeasement; policy of negotiation only from strength; succeeded Marshall as secretary of state

George Kennan

Marshall's other mainstay; headed newly created Policy Planning Staff; distrust for Soviet regime; advocated containment policy

containment

named from Kennan's article; policy consolidated evolving postwar anticommunism; established guidelines to shape US role in world; aimed at halting Soviet aggression and sustained resistance of RUS power

Greek Civil War

Greek govt fighting against communist guerrillas; initially aided by ENG; US eventually stepped in; first step towards containment

Truman Doctrine

Truman asked Congress for $400 million military/economic assistance to Greece and Turkey; assert US commitment to aid any free peoples against communism; informal declaration of cold war

western Europe

far more vital to US interests than eastern Mediterranean; vulnerable to Soviet penetration due to economic problems

WWII -> Europe

$9 billion US piecemeal loans; harsh economic recovery; scarce food; winter of 1947; broken industrial machinery; demoralized workers; resentment led to growing communist voting strength esp. in ITA and FRA

Marshall Plan

plan for massive infusion of US capital to finance economic recovery of Europe and ensure "free institutions"; RUS withdrew and did not take part

Czech coup

March 1948 war scare prompted Congress to quickly approve Marshal Plan

Brussels Treaty

ENG, FRA, and Low countries sign for collective self-defense

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

US, CAN, and 10 European nations form military mutual-defense pact; grew out of fears of RUS military aggression; third and final phase of containment; escalated Cold War; features: 1) US committed to defense of Europe 2) US honor commitment

Dwight Eisenhower

appointed NATO supreme commander

Berlin Blockade

RUS response to containment; cut off all rail and highway traffic to Berlin

Berlin airlift

massive airlift of food, fuel, and supplies for troops and civilians in Berlin

Berlin crisis

Truman won reelection; RUS eventually ended blockade; another Council of Foreign Ministers held and failed; marked end of initial phase of Cold War

1940s-1950s

rivalry between US and RUS grew

US military goals

reform: 1) US armed services unified into integrated military system 2) new institutions to coordinate military and diplomatic strategy to cope with threat

National Security Act

1947 Congress passed law establishing Department of Defense headed by cabinet secretary presiding over army, navy, and air force; created CIA and NSC

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

coordinated the intelligence-gathering activities of various govt agencies

National Security Council (NSC)

composed of service secretaries, secretary of defense, and secretary of state; advised the president on all matters regarding nation's security

air force

quickly emerged as dominant power in atomic age; favored in military budget; new B-36 planes

hydrogen bomb

in response to RUS exploding its first atomic bomb; high-level committee appointed for all-out effort to maintain US nuclear supremacy; opposed on technical and moral grounds

Paul Nitze

headed Policy Planning Staff after Kennan resigned

NSC-68

Policy Planning Staff ordered by Acheson to draw up new statement of national defense policy; document committed the US to massive military buildup to meet RUS challenge; increased defense spending to $45 billion/yr; symbol of the Truman administration determination to win regardless of cost

Yalta

US and RUS agreed to Far Eastern balance of power; RUS - Northeast Asia; US - Pacific and JAP; China between both spheres

Douglas MacArthur

in charge of JAP occupation; denied RUS involvement in reconstruction; supervised JAP govt transition into constitutional democracy

JAP constitution

constitutional democracy; communists barred from govt posts; renounced war; relied on US for security

trusteeship arrangement

agreement between US and United Nations; US held control over Marshall, Mariana, Caroline Is.; bomb tests at Bikini atoll

Chiang Kai-shek

leader of Chinese Nationalists in the South; backed by US and recognized by RUS; but corruption and inflation

Mao Tse-tung

leader of Chinese Communists in the North; hold over peasantry

Chiang vs. Mao

Marshall tried to mediate but both leaders unwilling to compromise over Manchuria

Chinese Civil War

Nationalists defeated and fled to Taiwan

Sino-Soviet treaty

Mao and Stalin signed treaty of mutual assistance; China placed under RUS influence

communism triumph in China

US response: 1) State Department refused to recognize China's new regime; maintained relations with Nationalists in Taiwan 2) focused on JAP as main ally in Asia; buildup of JAP industry and US bases

Japanese-American security pact

led to end of US occupation of JAP in 1952

Korea

where showdown between US and RUS took place; divided at 38th parallel; North - industrial, communist, RUS-trained army; South - agrarian, conservative nationalist, limited US military assistance

Kim Il-Sung

leader of North Korea

Syngman Rhee

leader of South Korea

Korean War

with the support of Stalin and Mao; started by North Korean aggression; engaged UN in collective security action; US deployed troops in response

Pusan

UN forces halted communist advance

Inchon

MacArthur carried out brilliant amphibious assault, cutting off and destroying North Korean army

Yalu

UN forces crossed 38th parallel; surprised by Chinese counterattack; driven out of North Korea

MacArthur's recall

Truman gave up Korea's unification; MacArthur's Asian war against communism struck down by Congress; settled for stalemate at 38th parallel

Korean War effects

success: defense of South Korea, collective security; failure: confused Americans, embarrassment to the world; most significant: massive rearmament, NSC-68, increased budget, military bases

Republicans

used growing dissatisfaction with postwar economy and fears of communism to revive its party and regain control of White House in 1952

Truman's weaknesses

1) favored friends, appointed old cronies to office: Tom Clark, Charles Snyder, Harry Vaughn 2) lack of political vision, failure at coherent legislative program, battled with Congress over New Deal-esque measures

wartime controls end

prices and demand for higher wages rose; labor unrest

Great Strike Wave

labor unrest swept country in 1946; major strikes: 1) coal miners walkout threaten to close US industry 2) paralyzing railroad workers strike

No. 1 Strikebreaker

Truman gained reputation after he asked Congress for power to draft striking railway workers into the army

Employment Act

1946 legislation created Council of Economic Advisers

Council of Economic Advisers

assisted the president and asserted the principle that govt was responsible for state of economy

Taft Hartley Act

corrected imbalance in labor-management relations; outlawed specific labor union activities (closed shop, secondary boycotts); permitted president to invoke 8-day cooling-off to delay strikes

Henry Wallace

represented New Deal; announced 3rd party Progressive candidacy 1948

Dixiecrats

southern Democrats protesting progressive civil rights platform formed separate States' Rights party 1948

Strom Thurmond

1948 States' Rights presidential nominee

Thomas Dewey

1948 Republican presidential nominee

Roosevelt coalition

made up of farmers, organized labor, urban ethnic groups, and blacks; tended to vote Democratic

Election of 1948

Truman wins; Democrats control Congress

why Truman won

reasons: 1) Roosevelt coalition votes 2) GOP failure to challenge Truman/Cold War

fear of communism

where Democrats were vulnerable

fear of radicalism

recurrent feature in American life; appeared in Alien and Sedition Acts, Know Nothings, Red Scare, Cold War

communist espionage

reinforced fear of Soviet Union; sparked second Red Scare

House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)

held hearings indicating that communist agents had flourished in the Agric. and Treasury departments

loyalty program

1947 Truman ordered security checks of govt employees to root out communists

Loyalty Review Board

dismissed workers as security risks if "reasonable doubt" of loyalty; thousands of govt workers lost jobs

Alger Hiss

accused by Whittaker Chambers as Soviet spy in 1930s; sentenced to 5 yrs prison

Justice Department

heightened fears of subversion; charged 11 officials of Communist party with advocating violent overthrow of govt; imprisoned and fined; Supreme Court upheld convictions as constitutional

Klaus Fuchs

British scientist admitted to giving RUS vital information about A-bomb

Rosenbergs

US communists charged with conspiracy to transmit atomic secrets to RUS; electrocuted

Joseph McCarthy

Republican senator accused many govt officials of being communists; never found substantial proof

McCarthyism

sensational campaign against communists in govt; led to 4 yrs. of charges; contemporary name of the red scare of 1950s; imposed political and cultural conformity that froze dissent in 1950s

secret of McCarthy's power

fear he engendered among colleagues; attack on wealthy famous and privileged attracted national following; backed by working class Catholics, ethnic groups, conservative Repiblicans

Millard Tydings

Maryland senator headed committee critical of McCarthy's activities; was not elected as a result

Red Dean

Dean Acheson targeted by McCarthy

Korea stalemate and second Red Scare

national frustration created desire for political change; GOP rise

Eisenhower

GOP candidate won Election of 1952; united divided nation; committed to end Korean war; gifted politician, diplomat, strategist

Election of 1952

Eisenhower won defeating Stevenson; Democrats still control but GOP made gains in Congress

Army-McCarthy hearings

McCarthy attacked upper echelons of US army; televised McCarthey's bullying behavior; led to backlash and Senate's censure of McCarthy in 1954

John Foster Dulles

chosen by Eisenhower as secretary of state; broad knowledge and skill in foreign policy but Eisenhower made major decisions

massive retaliation

part of Eisenhower's "new look" defense policy; threaten nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression

new look defense policy

Eisenhower cut back on army and navy, relied on air force, and implemented massive retaliation

Indochina

first crisis Eisenhower met; US gave FRA military and economic aid during war

Ho Chi Minh

led communist guerrillas in Indochina

Vietminh

Ho's forces

Dien Bien Phu

Vietminh surrounded 10k French troops deep in interior of Indochina; prompted FRA to ask US for help; eventually fell in May 1954

Arthur Radford

chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff

Radford's plan

proposed US air strike to lift siege; but Eisenhower, Congress, and ENG reject intervention

Geneva conference

May 1954 after Dien Bien Phu's fall; Indochina divided at 17th parallel; North - Ho; South - FRA

Saigon

US gradually took over South Vietnam; sponsored new govt headed by Ngo Dinh Diem

Wiliam Knowland

Senator led Republicans in blaming Democrats for loss of China

firmness policy

Eisenhower and Dulles' policy of containing Chinese expansion in Asia and drive wedge between Moscow and Peking

Formosa crisis

communist China threatened to seize coastal lands Quemoy and Matsu occupied by Nationalists; fear of invasion prompted US to sign security treaty committing US to defend Formosa; threatened nuclear weapons; Chinese backed down; RUS failure to respond led to growing rift

Suez crisis

gravest crisis for Eisenhower; 1956 Egyptian leader Gamal Nassar seized Suez Canal; ENG/FRA invaded Egypt and seized canal; Eisenhower opposed intervention and called for UN resolution; ENG/FRA eventually ended invasion; voters reelected Eisenhower; US replaced ENG and FRA as main Western influence in Middle East

Lebanon

divided between Christian and Muslim groups; Eisenhower had to interevene after Muslims threatened rebellion and nationalist coup overthrew pro-Western govt of Iraq

Camille Chamoun

Christian president sought second term, causing tensions

Beirut

US marines and troops moved in Lebanon; show of force ended conflict

Iran

CIA instrumental in overthrowing popularly elected govt in Iran and placing shah in full control; rewarded US oil companies with lucrative concessions; created deep animosity among Iranians

Guatemala

CIA masterminded overthrow of leftist regime; denied RUS foothold in Western hemisphere; interventionist actions resented by Latin Americans

Fidel Castro

came to power in Cuba; sided with RUS

Eisenhower -> Cold War

positive: Korean War, Indochina, Formosa, Suez crisis; negative: CIA activities, Iran, Guatemala, failure to act on behalf of East GER protesters and Hungarian freedom fighters

H-bomb

both US and RUS had developed it by 1955; intensified fear of nuclear warfare; Eisenhower wanted to end arms race

atoms for peace plan

US wand RUS would donate fissionable material to new UN agency to be used for peaceful purposes; refused by RUS

open skies plan

US and RUS opened their territory to mutual aerial surveillance; rejected by Khrushchev

test ban treaty

concerns over nuclear testing polluting atmosphere; both sides agreed to suspend further testing temporarily

Sputnik

first artificial satellite to orbit the earth; intensified Cold War

ICBMs

intercontinental ballistic missiles

IRBM

Polaris submarine-launched intermediate range missile

second Berlin crisis

Khrushchev sought separate peace treaty with East GER to end US, FRA, ENG occupation; Eisenhower refused to abandon city; RUS extended deadline indefinitely

Francis Gary Powers

piloted spy U-2 plane shot down by Soviets; aftermath caused Khrushchev's refusal to attend summit conference

breakup of Paris summit

marked end of Eisenhower's attempts to moderate Cold War

military-industrial complex

in farewell address Eisenhower warned about danger of massive defense spending and close relationship between armed forces and industrial corp. that supplied their weapons

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