what are the four base pairs?
In RNA thymine is subsituted with ____
In the early 1950's ______ ______ and ______ _______ used x-ray diffraction to understand the shape of DNA
Rolind Franklin and Maurice Wilkins
capsid and DNA
What does DNA stand for?
what is DNA?
an extremely long molecule comprised of units called nucleotides
What is a DNA nucleotide made up of?
5-carbon sugar a phosphate and a nitrogenous base
____ adds to ____ with a double bond
adenine and thymine
_____ adds to ______ for a triple bond
guanine and cytosine
the bonds were discovered by _____ ______
What is the shape of DNA?
Who discover the shape of DNA?
Watson and Crick
the process of the copying of DNA is called ____
What are the three types of RNA?
What is Insertion?
something put in that shouldnt and it pushed the code back
What is polyploida?
chromosomes fall and seperate
What is Heredity?
the passing of traits from one parent to and offspring
Genes on chromosomes control an organism's ___ and ___
form and function
the different forms of a trait that a gene may have is called is___
An organism that always produces that same traits generation after generation is called___
What is a Dominant trait?
describes a trait that covers over or dominates another form of that trait
What is a Recessive trait?
describes a trait that is covered over or dominated by another form of that trait and seems to dissapear
What is punnet suare?
a tool to predicit the probability of certain traits in an offspring that shows the different alleles can combine
What is Phenotype?
outward physical apperance and behavior of an organism
What is Genotype?
an organisms genetic make p
An uppercase letter stands for a ____ trait
A lowercase letter stands for a ___ trait
What is Homozygous?
an organism with two alleles that are the same
What is heterozygous?
an organism that has to different alleles for a trait
What is polygenic inheritence?
occurs when a group of gene pairs gets together to produce a trait
What are mutations?
errors that occur in the DNA when it is copied inside of the cell
What are Genes?
hereditary items that make up the
Gregor Mendell was .......
an austrian monk
worked in a monastary and taugt high school
and most importantly he handeled the monastary garden
What is incomplete dominance?
both traits are dominant and they show equally
Example: red+white= pink
what is co dominance?
co dominance is when dominant traits take over certain parts of the organism
Example: white cow+brown cow= white cow with brown spots
what are sex linked traits?
alleles that are attached to the chromosome
what are hybrids?
the offspring crosses between paernts with different traits