when a cell moves from one point to another or moving things within a cell
sensing and responding to change in the surroundings.
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings. Only in a plant cell
maintaining the "status quo"=stays the same
creating more cells
The process by which living organisms produce larger molecules from smaller ones
the basic process which must be performed in order to maintain life, and they can be grouped according to their purpose.
the study of cells
what are the 11 cellular functions?
absorption, digestion, respiration, excretion, egestion, secretion, movement, irritability, homeostasis, reproduction, and biosynthesis
the transport of dissolved substances into cells
the breakdown of absorbed substances; larger molecules may produce smaller molecules; may produce building blocks to be used in biosynthesis
the breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy; small molecules may be broken down to produce energy
the removal of soluble waste materials
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials.
The release of biosynthesized substances for use by other cells.
3 functions needed to maintain energy to live
absorption, digestion, and respiration
3 functions of elimination
excretion, egestion, and secretion
The removal of substances from the cell
a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell; plant cells usually have a cell wall, animal cells do not
Main function of a cell wall
to protect the cell from its surroundings
cell wall is composed of...?
cellulose and pectin
A complex polysaccharide found in plant structures
a substance that hardens cellulose
cell wall-primary wall
the original wall in a plant cell; relatively flexible to allow for growth
cell wall-secondary wall
a cell wall which develops after a cell is fully matured. it is much more rigid, and provides greater protection. It forms inside the wall.
the film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells. they are composed mainly of pectin.
a jelly like fluid inside the cell in which organelles are suspended. It is 80% water, and is composed of lipids (fats), proteins, and carbs.
the motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy.
organells for hydrolysis reactions which break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids. they contain digestive enzymes. they are called "suicide sacs" because they release a chemical that destroys the life of the cell.
non membrane bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis.
an organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell. It's function is to help maintain the cells shape, transport of complex molecules throughout the cell, support production of organic molecules.
What are the two types of endoplasmic reticulum?
rough ER, and smooth ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes; involved in protein synthesis
no ribosomes; involved in lipid synthesis and inactivated of harmful by products of digestion and respiration.
the organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell.
Golgi bodies function
Receives materials from the ER, packages them, and sends them to other parts of the cell.
storage organelles found in plants, algae and some protozoa
what are the 4 types of plastids?
leucoplast, chloroplast, stroma and chromoplast
a plastid that stores starches or oils.
plastids containing pigments used in photosynthesis
the plastid which contains chlorophyll
the fluid within a chloroplast which is the actual side of photosynthesis
a membrane bound sac
what are the 5 types of vaculoles?
food, contactile, waste, phagosytic and central
large vacuole at the center of most plant cells
what is the function of the central vacuole?
it causes turgor pressure through osmosis. it becomes filled with a solution that contains a high contraction of solutes which attract water.
Water pressure inside a plant cell's central vacuole; causes the stiffness of the plant cell
molecules that contain the non-toxic waste products of digestion
(phago=eat) a vacuole which holds matter engulfed by a cell
a small vacuole
what are the 2 types of vesicles?
pinocytic, and secretion
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules.
vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
organelles with 2 functions: 1) in organelles with cilia or flagells, the centrioles for the base of the movement organelles, 2) involed in cellular division
the control enter of a cell; holds the DNA
tells the cell everything it needs to know about the structure and function
the way something is put together; what it looks like
the special work or purpose of something; what it does
a highly porous(think of a sponge with holes-can go in and out), membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
clusters of DNA and protein
area of the nucleus that contains protein and RNA.
a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
What are the three basic kinds of fibers that make up the cytoskeleton?
microfilament, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
fine, thread like proteins
thread like proteins that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments
spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tube like structure
What is the function of microfilament fiber?
it is mostly associated with the movement (such as the slow movement of an amoeba); cause certain cells to contract and relax; may also generate cytoplasmic streaming
What is the function of the intermediate filaments?
mostly responsible for strenthening and supporting the cell (sllwoing it to keep its shape)
What is the function of the microtubules?
participate in cell movement, used to form cilia and flagella; may clack a "track" for other organelles to attach to and travel on in the cytoplasm.
What does the make up of an individual cells cytoskeleton depend on?
the major function of that particular cell
What are plasma membranes composed of?
proteins, cholesterol, and phospholipids
a lipid in which on of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule which contains a phosphate group. (study your notes to memorize the structure)
What is the composition of a lipid?
glycerol and 3 fatty acids (study your notes to memorize the structure)
the act of combining parts or elements to form a whole. composed/made up
Where does a phosphate group give a phospholipid a slight offinity for water?
only at the end of a molecule with the phosphate group
What has a "water -loving" end and a water repelling end?
attracted to water, "love of water"
repelled by water; fear of water
What is the main component of plasma membrane?
the double layer of phospholipid molecules in the plasma membrane which is arranged with hydropphobic ends pointing toward each other, and the hydrophidic ends pointing in toward the cell and out toward the cells surroundings.
may form proteins "bridges" that span the phospholipids bilayer and are used as active transport sites.
interspersed thoughout the membrane
What are 2 types of carbohydrates?
glycoprotein and glycolipids
a carb attached to a protein
a carb attached to a lipid
What serves as a mean of cell to cell recognition?
the amount and types of carbs on the plasma membrane, which varies from cell as well as one individual to another.
The reassembly of the plasma membrane, when broken, is due to what?
primarily to the phospholipid biolayer
What are the 2 basic ways substances enter or exit a cell?
passive transport and active transport
movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictakes of osmosis or diffusion.
movement of molecules through the plasma membrane, typically opposite the dictakes of osmosis of diffusion) acided by a process that requires energy.
a solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
a solution in which the concentration of the solutes is greater than that of the cell which resides in the solution
colapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a look of water ( occurs in hyper tonic solution)
rupture of a cell due to excess internal pressure
What usually occurs in hypotonic solution?
When a contractile vacuole is forced to expell water out of a cell, what is it engaging in?
What does the active transport site on the plasma membrane made of?
it is the make up of a protein molecule that spands the width of the membrane. The protein "works" (uses energy) to bring molecules across the membrane.