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triacylglycerol

glycerol with 3 fatty acids attached

Lipids are

biomolecules that contain fatty acids or a steroid nucleus

Lipids are

soluble in organic and non-polar solvents but not in water

Lipids are

extracted from cells using organic solvents

The lipids that contain fatty acids are:

waxes
fats and oils (triacylglycerols or triglycerides)
glycerophospholipids
prostaglandins

fats and oils AKA

(triacylglycerols or triglycerides)

The types of lipids that do not contain fatty acids are

steroids

Fatty acids are:

are long-chain carboxylic acids

Fatty acids are:

typically contain 12 to 18 carbon atoms

Fatty acids are:

are insoluble in water

Fatty acids are:

can be saturated or unsaturated

The formulas for fatty acids are written as

condensed structural formulas
line-bond formulas

Saturated fatty acids have

single C—C bonds

Saturated fatty acids have

molecules that fit closely together in a regular pattern

Saturated fatty acids have

high melting points that make them solids at room temperature

Saturated fatty acids have

strong attractions between fatty acid chains

Type Saturated Fatty Acids

lauric acid

Type Saturated Fatty Acids

myristic acid

Type Saturated Fatty Acids

palmitic acid

Type Saturated Fatty Acid

stearic acid

Unsaturated fatty acids have

one or more C=C bond

Unsaturated fatty acids typically contain

cis =

Unsaturated fatty acids have

bends/kinks, therefore don't stack well

Trans = bonds are not common and mostly occur when:

there is hydrogenation of cis

Type of Monounsaturated Fatty Acid

palmitoleic acid

Type of Monounsaturated Fatty Acid

oleic acid

Type of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

linoleic acid

Type of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

linolenic acid

Type of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

arachidonic acid

Unsaturated fatty acids have

fewer attractions between chains

Unsaturated fatty acids have

lower melting points (the more double bonds, the lower the m.p.)

Unsaturated fatty acids are

liquids at room temperature

Omega-6 are

in vegetable oils are mostly omega-6
with the first C═C at C6 from the ω CH3- end

Omega-3 are

in fish oils are mostly omega-3 with the first C═C at C3 from the ω CH3- end

Prostaglandins are

derived from arachidonic acid

Prostaglandins have

a five-carbon ring

Prostaglandins have

20 carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains

Prostaglandins have

an -OH on carbons 11 and 15

Prostaglandins have

a trans double bond at carbon 13

Prostaglandins are

not produced when anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin (& other NSAIDs) inhibit their synthesis

Prostaglandins are

involved in pain, fever, and inflammation

Prostaglandins are

produced by injured tissues

Fatty acids have what at the end?

COOH (carboxylic acid)

Waxes are

esters of saturated fatty acids and long-chain alcohols

Waxes are

coatings that prevent loss of water from leaves of plants

Fats and oils are

formed when the hydroxyl groups of glycerol react with the carboxyl groups of fatty acids

Fats and oils are

esters of glycerol

Fats and oils are

produced by esterification

Fats and oils are

also called triacylglycerols (TAGs) or triglycerides

glycerol

CH₂-O-H

CH-O-H

CH₂-O-H

In a triacylglycerol what forms ester bonds with 3 fatty acids?

glycerol

Olive oil contains a high percentage of

oleic acid

oleic acid is a

monounsaturated fatty acid with one cis double bond

A triacylglycerol that is usually called a fat

Dietary fat acts as a carrier of lipid-soluble vitamins into cells of small intestine

A triacylglycerol that is usually called a fat

Provide shock absorption and insulation

A triacylglycerol that is usually called a fat

provide energy storage in adipocytes

A triacylglycerol that is usually called a fat

is prevalent in meats, whole milk, butter, and cheese

A triacylglycerol that is usually called a fat

is solid at room temperature

A triacylglycerol that is usually called an oil

is liquid at room temperature

A triacylglycerol that is usually called an oil

is prevalent in plants such as olive and safflower

Oils with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

are liquids at room temperature

Oils with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

have lower melting points than do saturated fats

Oils with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

cannot pack triacylglycerol molecules as close together as in fats

Oils with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

have cis double bonds that cause "kinks" in the fatty acid chains

Oils with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

have more unsaturated fats

Oils with Unsaturated Fatty Acids

have kinks that do not allow close packing.

The chemical reactions of triacylglycerols are similar to those of

alkenes and esters.

In hydrogenation, double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids react with:

H2 in the presence of a Ni or Pt catalyst.

The hydrogenation of oils converts

double bonds to single bonds

The hydrogenation of oils adds

hydrogen (H2) to the carbon atoms of double bonds

The hydrogenation of oils increases

the melting point

The hydrogenation of oils produces

solids such as:
margarine and shortening

Unsaturated fatty acids can be: Cis with bulky groups on the ______ side of C═C

SAME

Unsaturated fatty acids can be: trans with bulky groups on the ______ side of C═C

OPPOSITE

Trans fatty acids are formed during:

hydrogenation when cis double bonds are converted to trans double bonds

Trans fatty acids in the body behave like:

saturated fatty acids

Trans fatty acids are estimated to make up: __ to __ % of our total calories

2 to 4

Trans fatty acids in several studies are reported to raise _____ -cholesterol and lower ___ -cholesterol.

LDL
HDL

In vegetable oils, the unsaturated fats usually

contain cis double bonds

In vegetable oils, during hydrogenation some ___ double bonds are converted to ____ double bonds (more stable), causing a change in the fatty acid ______

cis
trans
structure

In vegetable oils, a label states "partially" or "fully hydrogenated" if the fats contain:

trans fatty acids

Olestra is used in foods as

an artificial fat

Olestra is ____ linked by ____ bonds to several long-chain fatty chains

sucrose
ester

Olestra is not broken down in the _____ _____ (provides no nutrition, but excreted)

intestinal tract

are there more unsaturated fats in vegetable oils?

yes

Does hydrogenation of oils converts some cis-double bonds to trans-double bonds?

yes

Do animal fats have more saturated fats?

yes

Plants are usually oils that are ___ with ___ bonds and are ___ at room temp

unsaturated
kinky
liquid

Animal fat is usually _____ with ____ chains and are ____ at room temp

saturated
straight chains
solid

Double bonds of unsaturated fats can auto-oxidize in ___, and via _______

air
microorganisms

Oxidation of Unsaturated Fats Products are:
short-chain ________, which can be further oxidized to ______ _____

aldehydes
carboxylic acids
-CH=CH- → -CHO + OHC- → -COOH + HOOC-

Oxidation of Unsaturated Fats products

stink - rancidity

Oxidation of Unsaturated Fats Reactions are accelerated by trace ___ ____ ; inhibited by antioxidants, & /or chelating agents which trap metal ions

metal ions

Oxidation of Unsaturated Fats Happens in ___ exposed to air, on ____ skin

oils
sweaty

In acid or enzyme hydrolysis, of Triacylglycerols:
water adds to the _____ bonds

ester

In acid or enzyme hydrolysis, of Triacylglycerols: triacylglycerols split into _____ and three ____ ____

glycerol
fatty acids

In acid or enzyme hydrolysis, of Triacylglycerols:
an acid or enzyme _____ is required

catalyst

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