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Affect

To produce a material influence upon; to act upon

Accurately

Without error; correct

Analyze

To break down a problem or situation into separate parts or relationships

Apparent

Manifest to the senses or mind as real or true on the basis of evidence that may or may not be factually valid

Article

A distinct often numbered selection of writing

Author's Purpose

The reason an author wrote a passage or other piece of writing

Author's Viewpoint

How an author views the subject about which he/she is writing

Brochure

Pamphlet or booklet containing descriptive or advertising material

Cause

The reason for an action or situation

Character

A fictional person in a story

Compare

To use examples to show how things are similar

Comprehension

Understanding what an author tells you directly

Context

The phrases and sentences that surround a word

Contrast

To use examples to show how things are different in one or more ways

Chronologically

Arranged in the order of time in which events happened

Effect

The results of a situation or action

Evaluate

To make a value judgment, to give the pluses and minuses along with supporting evidence

Excerpt

A small portion from a passage, book, or other piece of writing

Fact

A statement that can be proved

Faulty Logic

Illogical thinking or false arguments

Figurative Language

Words that mean something other than their literal meaning

Functional

Materials generally read for a precise action, such as directions, maps, schedules, menus, catalogues, instructions, etc.

Inference

A conclusion not directly stated but drawn from a set of facts or opinions

Main Idea

The central message of a passage; what the passage is about

Narrative

A story

Narrator

The character who is telling the story.

Nonfiction

Writing about real people, places, events, and social issues

Opinion

A statement that cannot be proved; a statement that reflects an individual or group's interpretation of something

Point of View

The vantage point from which the story is told. It can be first person narrative, third person limited, or third person omniscient.

Plot

The sequence of events in a story

Preview

An attempting to get a general picture of what the assignment or passage is about

Propaganda

Uses persuasive techniques to encourage people to act based on their emotions alone, instead of using solid reasoning

Recreational

Materials generally read for pleasure, such as magazines, poems, novels, and short stories

Sarcasm

The use of praise to mock someone or something. Example: "He's a real he-man."

Satire

Literary tone used to ridicule or make fun or a human vice or weakness, often with the intent of correcting, or changing, the subject of the satiric attack.

Setting

The time and place in which the action of a story occurs

Stanza

Division of poetry named for the number of lines it contains

Subheading

Heading of a smaller section as in an outline or passage

Summarize

To present the main points of an issue in a shortened form.

Supporting Details

Specific statements that give more information about the central message of a passage

Technique

The manner in which technical details are treated or basic physical movements are used

Testimonial

A statement listing the benefits of someone or something

Textual

Materials generally read for information, such as charts, graphs, encyclopedias, etc.

Tone

The overall feeling, or effect created by a writer's use of words. This feeling may be serious, humorous, satiric, and so on.

Theme

A central idea or a general truth dramatized or implied

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