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hypothesis

An assumption bout behavior tested through scientific research

Cognitive

Having to do with the process of thinking and understanding

Theory

A complex explanation of phenomena based on findings from scientific research

Scientific Method

A general approach to gathering info and answering questions that minimizes errors and bias

Psychology

The study of behavior tested through scientific research

Animals and Humans

Psychology involves the study of behavior in...

Assumption

which of the following is not a goal of psychology? Explanation, Description, Assumption, or Prediction

systematic

All psychologists conduct _____ studies

Applied Science

A psychologist who tries to help factory workers who have been diagnosed with sleep disorders is practicing....

Behaviorist

A psychologist who analyzes observable behavior and studies conditioning and reinforcement

Functionalist

A psychologist who studies the effects that physical and chemical changes have on behavior

structuralist

a psychologist who studied the basic elements that make up conscious mental experiences

Psychobiologist

a psychologist who studies how physical and chemical changes in our bodies influence our behavior

Psychoanalyst

A psychologist who studies how unconscious motives and conflicts determine human behavior

Gestalt Psychology

The branch of psychology that emphasizes the perception is more than the sum of its parts is....

Sigmund Freud

The most well known name in the his of psychology. he was the pioneer in the field of psychology whose work continues to have great historic value. the inner struggle of the subconscious is the key to many of his theorie

Processed, stored, and used

Cognitivists, such as Jean Piaget, concern themselves with the way in which info is...

Greeks

The ____ began studying human behavior in the fifth and sixth centuries B.C., and decided that humans were rational beings

Community psychology

A movement to minimize or prevent psychological disorders through changes in social systems and through community mental health programs.

Experimental Psychologist

a psychologist who studies sensation, perception, learning, motivation, and emotion in carefully controlled laboratory conditions

Clinical Psychologist

a psychologist who diagnoses and treats people with emotional disturbances

Educational Psychologist

researches topics related to intelligence, memory, problem solving, and motivation with the goal of helping students learn more effectively

Developmental Psychologist

a psychologist who studies the emotional, cognitive, biological, personal, and social changes that occur as an individual matures

Psychiatrist

(Dr. Burgess) a physician who specializes in psychiatry and is certified in treating mental disorders. M.D or D.O

Counseling psychologists

Psychologists who work in schools or businesses and assist people with the problems of everyday living are...

Experimental Psychologists

The interaction between physical and psychological health is studied by...

Environmental Psychologists

Psychologists who study the effects of natural disasters, overcrowding, and pollution on people are known as....

Trephining

Term given for the process of cutting a circular hot in to the human skill in order to release "evil spirits"

Rene Descartes

Early psychologist who believed that the nerves were hollow tubes through which animal spirits followed

Phrenology

A process by which a psychologist can discern intelligence, moral character, etc. by touching the bumps on a person's head

Franz Josef Gall

Psychologist who developed the process of Phrenology

Hippocrates

Psychologist who developed the theory of the four humors

Psychiatrist

A carrer path that would require you to attend medical school and then went on to practice psychology (They hold a M.D. or D.O. degree)

Wihelm Wundt

Psychologist who opened the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig Germany in 1879

Introspection

a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings

John B. Watson

Started behavioralism. "Little Albert" was his most famous subject

Free Association

The name of the practice of giving a subject a word and then asking them to reply with the first word that comes to their mind

Behavioralism

Psychological perspective that claims the focus of psychology should be on observable behavior

Cross-Sectional

different age groups are tested at the same time

B.F Skinner

Believed you could gain complete understanding or behavior by studying and modifying the environment in which people operate. "Give me 10 infants... and i will turn them into anything that you want me to as long as i have complete control over their environment and experiences"

psychologist

(Dr. Phil) an expert in psychology who either conducts research or works in an applied researcher or counseling area. Ph.D

Social Worker

Someone who has a master's degree in social work and has passed a licensing test in order to be a licensed clinical ___ Worker

Skinner Box

Named for its developer, B.F. Skinner, a box that contains a responding mechanism and a device capable of delivering a consequence to an animal in the box whenever it makes the desired response

Behavior

Refers to the observable actions of a person and of an animal

Mind

Refers to an individuals sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, dreams, motives, emotional feelings, and other subjective experiences

physiological

having to do with an organism's physical processes

Social Sciences

Psychology is part of this (history, law, anthropology, sociology, etc.

Empirical Data

Data that is based on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses.

4 year B.S or B.A degree typically in psychology or sociology

2 year masters degree

How do you become a social worker?

clinics, schools, private practice or hospitals.

Where do social workers work?

complete a 4 year college degree B.A or B.S
Attend 4 years of medical school
complete a 3 to 4 year residency

How do you become a psychiatrist?

Complete a 4 year degree is psychology (B.A Psychology)
Complete 4-5 year graduate program in psychology (Ph.D)

How do you become a Psychologist?

Psychoanalytic Approach

Advocates of this approach believed that behavior is motivated by inner forces and conflicts over which the individual has little awareness or control

Modern Behaviorist

Try to change behavior in order to change or improve a person's health

Humanistic Approach

Study the unique characteristic of human. Believed that people naturally have the ability to control their lives and behavior

Grasping reflex

infant's clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand

Rooting reflex

Infant's response in turning toward the source of touching that occurs anywhere around the mouth

Developmental Psychology

Study of changes thats occur as an individual matures

Telegraphic Speech

Verbal utterances in which words are left out but the meaning is usually clear

Maturation

Internally programmed growth of a child

Both heredity and environment

A person's behavior usually develops as a result of...

18 to 20 inches

At birth, the length of most infants is...

Egocentric

Young child's inability to understand another person's perspective

Critical Period

Specific time in development when certain skills or abilities are most easily learned

Schema

Specific plan for knowing the world

Object Performance

Child's realization that an object exists even when he or she cannot see or touch it

Conservation

Principle that a given quantity does not change when its appearance is changed

Assimilation

The process of ___ involves fitting objects and experiences into one's schemas

Mary Ainsworth

developmental psychology; compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; "The Strange Situation": observation of parent/child attachment

Harry Harlow

psychologist who researched the relationship of body contact and nourishment to attachment, using infant monkeys and artificial mothers

Socialization

process of learning the behavioral rules of one's culture

Sublimation

Process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks

Identification

Process by which a child adopts the values and principles of the same-sex parent

Role taking

children's play involving the assumption of adult roles

Authoritarian Parenting style

-Parent rule
-Children have no right to question authority result

Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style

-teens participate in decisions. discussions and negotiation. parents explain reasons for decisions but retain veto power

Reversibility

A child can answer the question, "who is your sister's sister"

Animistic Thinking

A child who believes that the sun "Mr. Sun" is alive ans has human-like characteristics

Development

the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism

Oedipal Complex

Freud used this term to describe his theory that boy's fall in love with their mother and hate their father out of jealousy at a young age

Erik Erikson

Psychologist who believed that social approval is just as important as sexual and aggressive urges in humans and developed a theory of development based on this

Daniel Levinson

Psychologist who developed a theory of development of adult men

Thanatology

Word that is used to describe the study of death and dying

Clique

a small, exclusive group of people

Methods of research in psychology

1. Begin with a question
2. Decide which method of research fits best
3. Determine a representative sample
(Sample must accurately represent the group you are studying in order for your results to be valid. Represents the group or population that you are studying)

Naturalistic Observation

Observed the subject in its natural environment with as little disruption as possible and see subject in natural environment

Jane Goodall

world's leading expert on chimpanzees; has a big reserve in Africa where she lives with and studies chimps

Case study

An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.

+ Tons of info. - does not apply to general population. it only applies to that particular group

Positive and negative of Case studying

Survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.

+ Most practical way to gather info on a large number of people. - limited responses

Positive and negative of a survey

Longitudinal Studies

a research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period (years)

+ huge, reliable data. - time consuming, $

Positive and negative of Longitudinal Studies

Cross-sectional study

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another

+ cheap and quick way to collect data. - data contains different subjects so the data is not as valid or reliable

Positive and negative of Cross-sectional study

+ Allows the researcher to control the environment and decrease the possibility of external variables impacting your results. - Not always possible in psych because you cant always isolate variables

Positive and negative of an experiment

Independent variables

variable you change to see how it will affect the depentant varible.

Dependent Variables

The variable being watched to examine that impact of the independent variable

Experimental Group

Subject exposed to the independent variable

Control Group

Subjects not exposed to independent variable

Placebo effect

The power of possible thinking can impact a study

Hypothesis for Placebo effect

Patients receiving experimental surgery will improve knee strength

Independent variable for Placebo effect

Surgery

Dep. Variable for placebo effect

Knee strength

Control Group for Placebo effect

-no surgery
-Just therapy 15% full recovery

Experimental Group for placebo effect

-Surgery
-Therapy
-90% full recovery

Placebo group for placebo effect

-Cut skin
-Therapy
-40% full recovery

Self-Fulfilling prophecy

an expectation that causes you to act in ways that make that expectation come true.

Single-Blind

when subjects do not know which experimental group they are in

Double-Blind

when neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group

Child development

the study of how children grow and change physically, intellectually, emotionally, socially and morally (Sigmund Freud)

Theory of Psychosexual development

All children are born with powerful sexual and aggressive urges that must be tamed. Since this energy has little use for children Freud believed that it drove development

Oral Stage

(1st year) -Erotic pleasures are obtained through the mouth. this explains why babies put everything in their mouths
-Weaning causes frustration and conflict for the child
-This is the child's first experience with not getting what he wants
- Oral fixation comes from this

Sigmund Freud

Who was the first person the develop a theory to which argued that children think differently than adults

False

True or False: Freud worked with children

Anal Stage

(2nd Year) - Holding in or pushing out fieces gibing pleasure until the child learns social control trough toilet training
- children who struggle with this may become anal retentive, they must have structure and control in their lives

Phallic Stage

(3-5 years) - In this stage, Children discover their genitals

Electra Complex

conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals

Penis envy

the desire of girls to posses a penis and therefore have the power that being male represents.

True

True of False: Both sexes are likely to marry mates with personality characteristics like their parents

Latency Stage

(6-Adolescence) - sexual desires are pushed into background and children busy themselves with exploring the world and learning new skills

Genital Stage

(Adult) - People get as much pleasure from giving pleasure as they do from receiving it (Sexual Maturity)

Criticisms of freuds theory

-stops at mid-teens
- most psychologist dont believe in penis envy, O/E complex, etc.
-Freud wanted to start a revolution in the way we viewed child development

Jean Piaget

Cognitive Psychologist who spent thousands of hours studying children
*was the biggest impact on devo. psychology

Development Psychology

Branch of psych that studies how people grow and change over their life span

Sensorimotor Stage

(Birth-2) Object permanence - the ability to remember things exist when they are hidden from view
-Develop motor control
-Grasping reflex present
-Rooting reflex present

Preoperational Stage

(2-7) - Devo. of language, symbolic thinking, egocentric thinking. child uses symbols to represent objects and events

Preconceptual Period

(2-4) -Animistic Thinking
- Egocentrism

Intuitive Period

(4-7) - Inability to understand Conservation

Seration

The ability to order things from shortest to longest

Concrete Operational Stage

(7-12) - Devo. conservation, master reversibility, think more logically
- Less egocentric thought

Formal Operational Stage

(12-Adult) - Devo. logical and abstract thinking
-Able to use deductive reasoning
*not everyone reaches this stage

Criticisms of Piagets theory

-Children are not consistent with performance. Suggests continuity rather than stages
-Underestimates children's ability to understand concepts

Diana Baumrind

-Developed a theory about teenagers. This theory stated that parenting style has a major influence on child development

-resent all authority, rebel without a cause
-lack practice in negotiating

Results of Authoritarian Parenting style

Teens are confident of goals and values. likely to make own decisions. Child assumes responsibility gradually and identifies with parents who love and respect her

Results of Democratic/Authoritative Parenting style

Permissive/Laissez fair family

Parents make no rules or give up when challenged

Children feel unwanted. lack of self-worth. lack trust in own decisions

Results of Permissive/Laissez fair family

Uninvolved Parents

Parents are self-centered and/or un-committed to parenting (Drugs, alcohol/ mental illness)

aggressive, poor control, low self-esteem

Result of Uninvolved Parents

Erik Eriksons theory of psychosocial development

recognized sexual and aggressive urges in children but argued that the need for social approval is just as important. He argued that all humans face several challenges or crisis as they age. the manner in which you resolve each crisis impacts your development as you age

Spermarche

Period during which males achieve first ejaculation

Menarche

First menstrual period

Puberty

Sexual maturation

Initiation rites

Ceremonies in which an individual is admitted to new status or accepted into a new position

Asynchrony

Condition in which the growth or maturation of bodily parts is uneven

An industrialized society

Margaret Mead theorized that adolescence marked by storm and stress was a by-product of....

A rapid increase in height and weight

Just before puberty, children experience....

Are more self-confident

Boys who mature early...

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