A.P.U.S.H. Chapters 23-24 Reading Guide

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In the late 1800's, what did "waving the bloody shirt" remind voters of?

The treason of the confederate Democrats, Civil War

What did the Credit Mobilier scandal involve?

Railroad construction blockade

What did the owners of the Credit Mobilier do to avoid prosecution for their corrupt dealings?

the company distributed shares of its valuable store to key congressman

what is the primary motivation for the Liberal Republicans to revolt from the regular Republican party in 1872?

republicans disgusted w/ Grant administration corruption

Why was President Ulysses S. Grant reelected in
1872

because his opponents chose a poor candidate for the presidency

What were the major causes of the Panic of 1872?

construction of more factories thsn existing markets would bear

What solution did debtors advocate to solve the depression that followed the Panic of 1873?

inflationary prices

What causes a political turn to the democrats and new greenback labor party in the mid- 1870s?

republican hard money policy

What was the major problem in 1876 presidential results?

the two sets of election returns submitted by Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana

What does the compromise of 1877 result in?

the withdrawal of federal troops from the south

Know the sequence of the "forgettable presidents"

Grant Hayes Garfield Arthur Cleveland Harrison

What did the supreme court rule in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson?

seperate but equal facilities were constitutional

Know atleast4 ways southern whites disenfranchised African Americans

poll taxes
literacy tests
grandfather clause
economic intimidation

what was the end result for many blacks who violated the jim crow laws or other elements of the Souths racial codes?

lynching/death

define jim crow laws

legal codes that established the system of segregation

what sparked the national railroad strike of 1877?

the 4 largest railroads cut salaries by 10%

what is the end result of many labor unrests in the 1870's and 1880's

use of federal troops during strikes

what does congress do in the wake of anti-chinese violence in california?

passed a law prohibiting the immigration of chinese laborers to america

what does the pendleton act require people applying for many federal government jobs to do?

to take competitive examination

what group of people supports Grover Cleveland's strong belief in a laissez-faire approach to government?

business people

where does grover cleveland stand on the tariff issue?

advocated a lower rate

besides advocating a lower tariff, how does grover cleveland stir political opposition?

strong support for the railroads and other businesses in their efforts to crush labor organizing/ support civil service reform

what does grover cleveland propose doing with federal budget surplus?

toss an appeal for lower tariffs. downward revision of the tariff schedule

why was benjamin harrison's victory over grover cleveland in 1888 unusual?

harrison lost the popular vote but won the elctoral college

how does the billion-dollar congress quickly dispose of rising government surpluses?

by expanding pensions for civil war veterans.
...

who was upset with congressman william mckinleys tariff bill that that would lead to sky high tariff rates?

farmers in midwest and south

name atleast four platform planks of the populist party of 1892

everything except government garuntees of "parity prices" for farmers

what led to populists adding industrial workers to their base of support in 1892?

epidemic of nationwide strikes in the summer of 1892

what ends the early campaign by populists to create a coalition of white and black farmers?

a racist backlash that eliminated black voting in south/ failure of 3rd party revolt in south

federal land grants and loans were used primarily to build these during the guilded age

railroads

what is the only transcontinental railroad built without government aid

great northern

what is the greatest economic consequence of the transcontinental railroad network?

movement of people to cities

what is the greatest single factor helping to spur the amazing industrialization of the post- civil war years?

the railroad network

name atleast 4 technological improvements that made the modern transcontinental railroad network possible

steel rail
gage of track
westinghouse air brake
block signal

what two industries did the transcontinental railroad most significantly expand?

mining and agriculture

agreements between railroad corporations to divide the business in a given area and share the profits were called what?

pools

why do early railroad owners form pools?

to avoid competition by dividing business in a particular area

in the case of wabash st louis and pacific rairoad company v. illinois, the us supreme court held that state legislatures could not regulate railroads for what reason?

railroads were interstate businesses and could not be regulated by any single state

where do the first efforts to regulate railroads come from?

midwestern legislatures

this is the first federal regulatory agency designed to protect public interest from business combinations

interstate commerce commission

name 3 european countries that provided the largest amounts of foreign capital investment in American industry

britain
france
the netherlands

4 critical raw materials delivered by railroads to factories that fueled early american industry

iron
coal
oil
copper

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