Sociology Exam

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75 terms · Semester Exam

Japanese Americans

minority group confined to relocation camps during world war II

Institutionalized Discrimination

illustrated by unequal access to the resources of society that pushes some minority groups into less powerful positions

Nazi Germany

nation that practiced extermination

Native Americans

american minority group that was granted United States citizenship in 1924

Race

a category of people who share inherited physical characteristics and whom others see as being a distinct group

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

prediction that results in behavior that makes the prediction come true

Civil Rights Act of 1964

outlawed legal discrimination in the United States

South Africa

nation that practiced subjugation

Hispanic Americans

largest minority group in the United States

Fair-Weather Liberals

person who is not prejudiced but discriminates anyway because of societal pressure

Timid Bigot

according to Merton, a person who is prejudiced but is afraid to discriminate because of societal pressure is a

low levels of prejudice

in a society in which groups interact closely on a basis of equality, there tend to be

the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Legal discrimination in the United States was outlawed with the passage of

Hispanic Americans

Which of the following is the largest minority group in the United States?

population transfer

The confinement of Japanese Americans to relocation camps during WWII is an example of

Indianoid

All of the following are racial categories except

subjugation

All of the following are sources of prejudice and discrimination except

legal discrimination

discrimination that is upheld by law is

genocide

Switzerland is to cultural pluralism as Nazi Germany is to

The have been called a model minority

Which of the following statements best describes Asian Americans?

false

White ethnics is a collective term for immigrants from Ireland, Italy, France, Poland, and Greece

false

The Jim Crow laws were legislation designed to put an end to legal discrimination

true

A minority group is a group of people who, because of their physical characteristics or cultural practices, are singled out for unequal treatment

true

The apartheid system in South Africa was an example of legal discrimination

true

Ethnic cleansing is a practice that combines population transfer and extermination

Political science

social science that studies such things as government and voting patterns

Herbert Spencer

sociologist who was influenced by Charles Darwin

Social Psychology

social science that focuses on individual personality

dysfunction

negative consequence an element has for the stability of society

symbolic interaction

interaction between people that takes place through the use of symbols

conflict perspective

theoretical perspective that follows the tradition of Karl Marx

economics

social science that examines the choices people make to satisfy their wants and needs

Auguste Comte

founder of sociology

function

positive consequence an element has for the stability of society

sociological imagination

ability to see the connection between the larger social world and our personal lives

Max Weber

social darwinism is to Herbert Spencer as ideal type it to

psychology

the social science that studies the behavior and thinking of organisms is

Verstehen

The empathetic meanings others attach to their actions is called

the interactionist perspective

The theoretical perspective that emphasizes the use of symbols is

manifest function

The intended and recognized consequence of some element of society is a

sociological imagination

Sociologist C. Wright Mills developed the concept of

The Industrial Revolution

the development of sociology as a field of study was encouraged by

systematic explanation of the relationship among phenomena

A theory is a

functionalist sociologists

studying the societal consequences of the development of computers would most likely be of interest to

believed that the economy influences social culture

Sociologist Karl Marx

law

written rule of conduct enacted and enforced by the government

Napoleon Chagnon

anthropologist who studied the Yanomamö

cultural universals

features common to all societies

counterculture

group that rejects the values, norms, and practices of the larger society

nonmaterial culture

examples include beliefs, ideas, and rules

symbol

anything that stands for something else and has a shared meaning attached to it

culture

all the shared products of human groups

George Murdock

anthropologist who compiled a list of more than 60 cultural universals

material culture

examples include clothing, buildings, and automobiles

mores

norms that have great moral significance attached to them

culture pattern

the combination of a number of culture complexes into an interrelated whole is a

society

A group of mutually interdependent people who have organized in such a way as to share a common culture and feeling of unity is a

language

the organization of written or spoken symbols into a standardized system is called

mores

prohibitions against killing people and stealing other people's property are examples of

values

shared beliefs about what is good or bad, right or wrong, desirable or undesirable are called

culture complex

a cluster of interrelated culture traits is a

cultures should be judged by their own standards

culture relativism is the belief that

the common customs of everyday life

folkways are

neo-Nazis

which of the following groups is the best example of a counterculture

the Arapesh

warfare is to the Yanomamö as cooperation is to the

false

ethnocentrism is the sharing of rules of conduct that tell us how to act in specific situations

false

edward sutherland was the anthropologist who studied the San

true

Margaret Mead determined that temperament is mainly the result of culture rather than biology

true

Native Americans, Irish Americans, and soldiers living on a military base are all examples of a subculture

false

Anthropologist Marvin Harris studied the hunter-gatherers we know as cannibals

false

Anthropology is most interested in examining modern industrial societies

false

Sociologists tend to focus on individual rather than group behavior

true

Emile Durkheim systematically applied the methods of science to the study of society

false

according to Karl Marx, society is divided into two classes- the bourgeoisie and the capitalists- leading to class conflict

true

a latent function is the unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society

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