Pope Leo III proclaimed Charlemagne to be Emperor of the Romans because Charlemagne had
crushed a rebellion in Rome.
Part of a vassal's obligation under his feudal contract was to
serve in the military.
Marriage in noble society often included fierce negotiations over
the land in the woman's dowry.
a person who is bound to the land and owned by the feudal lord
A poet or musician who traveled around and entertained people with songs about chivalry and courtly love.
King of Franks; conquered Gaul; earned support of Gaul and Church of Rome by converting; Ruled lands in Frankish custom but kept Roman legacy
person of noble birth trained to arms and chivalry
St. Francis of Assisi
Founder of the Franciscans
an estate granted to a vassal by his lord
authority over all secular rulers
a trainee in the guild system
a document that set out the rights and privileges of a town
a salaried worker in the guild system
when the ownership of a manor was granted to a new lord, the serfs
remained on the land to serve the new lord
To achieve salvation, medieval Christians believed they must
receive the sacraments
Under Benedictine Rule, monks and nuns took vows of
obedience, poverty, and chastity
What crop restored fertility to the soil in the three-field system of rotating crops?
Newcomers to a medieval city often settled in the fields outside the city walls because
the city was overcrowded within the city walls.
What was a purpose of the missi dominici that Charlemagne sent throughout his kingdom?
They administered the law.
What important step did King Clovis take in ruling his conquered lands in that late 400s?
He converted to Christianity, the religion of the people of Gaul
Starting in the late 700s, which group attacked Western Europe from the sea and broke the last threads of unity in Charlemagne's empire?
Feudalism developed as a way for medieval societies to
A vassal owed his first loyalty to his
code of conduct for knights
In the manor system, the peasants had to
stay on the land for life
In the later Middle Ages, the Church
withdrew many rights that nuns had enjoyed
What was the result of the church reforms of Pope Gregory VII in 1073?
Only the church could appoint Church officials such as bishops
The claim of papal supremacy held that
the pope had authority over all knights and emperors
The new middle class in medieval society included
As a response to overcrowding, residents if medieval cities built
taller houses and shops