Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Antietam, Appomattox
Battle sites of the Civil war. Gettysburg - 90,000 soldiers under Meade vs. 76,000 under Lee, lasted three days and the North won. Vicksburg - besieged by Grant and surrendered after six months. Antietam - Turning point of the war and a much-needed victory for Lincoln. Appomattox - Lee surrendered to Grant.
Election of 1864: candidates, parties
lincoln ran against Democrat General McClellan. Lincoln won 212 electoral votes to 21, but popular vote was much closer.
Launched the American Red Cross in 1881. An "angel" in the Civil War, she treated the wounded in the field
1867 - Pushed through congress over Johnson's veto, it gave radical Republicans complete military control over the South and divided the South into five military zone, each headed by a general with absolute power over his district.
1865: abolished slavery and freed all slaves
Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
Full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants
No one could be denied the right to vote on account of race, color or having been a slave. It was to prevent states from amending their constitutions to deny black suffrage.
Multimillionaire railroad builder, he founded Stanford University in memory of his only son, who died young. He founded the Central Pacific Railroad
A railroad baron, he controlled the New York Central Railroad
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin. Emphasized a strong moral code and believed in predestination. Supported separation of Church and State.
Applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of the church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in church affairs.
Founder and governor of the Georgia colony. He ran a tightly-disciplined, military-like colony. Slaves, alcohol, and Catholicism were forbidden in his colony. Some felt like he was a dictator
John Locke, Fundamental Constitution
Was a British political theorist who wrote the Fundamental Constitution for the Carolinas colony, but it was never put into effect. The constitution would have set up a feudalistic government headed by an aristocracy which owned most of the land.
An African domestic in the colonies, and a well-known colonial poet. Her poetry was ornate and elaborate.
John Peter Zenger trial
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.
Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin
During the French and Indian War, Franklin wrote this proposal for a unified colonial government, which would operate under the authority of the british government.
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than britain or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation acts were reinstalled after the French and Indian War because Britian needed to pay off debts incurred during the war and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
May 30, 1765 - Patrick Henry's speech which condemned the British government for its taxes and other policies. He proposed 7 "resolves" to show Virginia's resistance to the British policies, o5 of which were adopted by the Virginia legislature. 8 other colonies followed suit and had adopted similar resolves by the end of 1765
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Committees of Correspondence
These started as groups of private citizens in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New York who, in 1763, began circulating information about opposition to British trade measures. The first government-organized committee appeared in Massachusetts in 1764. Other colonies created their own committees in order to exchange information and organize protests to British trade regulations
Mercy Otis Warren
A 19th century American historian who wrote a 3-volume history of the American Revolution
North was given full federal protection of trade and commerce. The South was given permanent relief from export taxes and a guarantee that the importation of slaves would not be halted for at least 20 years, plus the national capitol was placed in the South. Slaves were also deemed to be counted as 3/5 of a person when determining the state population, thus giving the Southern states a greater number of representatives in the house
The convention recommended by the Annapolis convention was held in Philadelphia. All of the states except Rhode Island sent delegates and George Washington served as president of the convention. Produced the present Constitution of the United States, which was drafted largely by Madison.
"Mad" Antony Wayne, Battle of Fallen Timbers
This person had been one of the leading generals of the Continental Army, and had played a crucial role in the defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown. In the early 1790's the British held trading posts in the Ohio Valley and encouraged the local Indian tribes to attack the Americans. Led by Wayne, the Americans defeated the Miami Indians in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794 near what is today Toledo, Ohio.
A shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
Hartford Convention, resolution
Proposed some amendments to the Constitution and advocated the right of states to nullify federal laws. They also discussed the idea of seceding from the U.S. if their desires were ignored
Treaty of Ghent
Ended the war of 1812. Territory captured in the war returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border
Age of the Common Man
Jackson's presidency. He felt that the government should be run by the common people - a democracy based on self-sufficient middle class with ideas formed by liberal education and a free press.
Election of 1832, Anti-Masonic Party
Andrew Jackson ran for re-election with V.P Martin Van Buren. The main issue was his veto of the recharter of the U.S. bank, which he said was a monopoly. Henry Clay, who was pro-Bank, ran against him.
Clay: Compromise Tariff of 1833
Henry Clay devised this which gradually reduced the rates of levied under the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. Caused South Carolina to withdraw the ordinance nullifying the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Essayist, poet. A leading transcendentalist, emphasizing freedom and self-reliance in essays which still make him a force today. He had an international reputation as a first-rate poet. he spoke and wrote many works on the behalf of the Abolitionists.
Henry David Thoreau, Walden, on Civil Disobedience
A transcendentalist and friend of emmerson. He lived alone on Waldon Pond with only $8 a year and wrote about it in Walden. IN his essay, "On Civil Disobedience," he inspired social and political reformers because he had refused to pay a poll tax in protest of slavery.
Social reformer, leader in women's movement and a transcendentalist. Edited The Dial which was the puplication of the transcendentalists.
James Fenimore Cooper
American novelist. The Spy was about the American Revolution. The Pioneers tells of an old scout returning to his boyhood home and is one of the Leatherstocking Tales, a series of novels about the American frontier for which he was famous.
Alexis De Tocqueville
Came from France to America. Observed democracy in government and society. His book discusses the advantages of democracy and consequences of the majority's unlimited power.
Charles G. Finney
An immensely successful revivalist of the 1800's. He helped establish the "Oberlin Theology". His emphasis on "disinterested benevolence" helped shape the main charitable enterprises of the time.
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property and communal raising children.
Oberlin and Mt. Holyoke
Founded by a New England Congregationalist in Ohio. First coed facility at the college level. First to enroll Blacks in 1835. First to have higher education for women
Supreme Court: Cohens V. Virginia
This case upheld the Supreme Court's jurisdiction to review a state court's decision where the case involved breaking federal laws
Supreme Court: Gibbons v. Ogden
This case ruled that only the federal government has the authority over interstate commerce.
Founder and editor of the New York Tribune. He popularized the saying "Go west, young man." He said that people who were struggling in the East could make the fortunes by going west.
Founded the first settlement of Americans in Texas
Established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states
After the Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgowas signed the U.S. realized that it had accidentally left portions of the southwestern stagecoach routs to california as part of Mexico. Went and purchased that land.
American Colonization Society
Formed in 1817 it purchased a tract of land in Liberia and returned free Blacks to Africa
A mulatto who inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his 37 followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Compromise of 1850
Called for the admission of California as a free state, organizing Utah and New Mexico with out restrictions on slavery, adjustment of the Texas/New Mexico border, abolition of slave trade in District of Columbia, and tougher fugitive slave laws. Its passage was hailed as a solution to the threat of national division.
Webster's 7th of March Speech
in this speech this person predicted that the nation would be divided over slavery.
Election of 1852: end of the Whig party
By this time the Whig party was so weakened that the Democrats swept Franklin Pierce into office by a huge margin. Eventually the Whigs became part of the new Republican Party.
Crittenden Compromise proposal
A desperate measure to prevent the Civil War, introduced by John Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky in December 1860. The bill offered a Constitutional amendment recognizing slavery in the territories south of the 36 30 line, noninterference by Congress with existing slavery and compensation to the owners of fugitive slaves. Republicans, on the advice of Lincoln defeated it.