Faulty Hidden Generalization
deductive fallacy; a _______ that underlies the unstated premise
Begging the Question
When writer makes a statement that assumes the very question being argued has already been proved.
Extreme form of Begging the Question.
Insufficient Sampling/ Hasty Generalization
If a generalization is made about the members of a particular class, it will be faulty if too few members of the class have been polled.
Faulty Cause/ Post Hoc
"After this, therefore because of this" Idea is that because one event precedes another event, one is the cause of the other. Often superstitions or myths.
Either/Or Fallacy, False Dilemma
Complex issue reduced to only two alternatives, neither which is acceptable.
Poses a question that requires an admission of guilt in any answer.
Same term is used with two different meanings.
Appeal to Fear & Pity/ Faulty Emotional Appeals
Such appeals arouse pity, but are irrelevant to the issue. Appeals to pity, compassion, and natural willingness to help the unfortunate are hard to resist.
"Against the Man" Personal attack against the person. Guilt association is part of this; against CERTAIN person.
Appeal to Force
Obvious and subtle appeals to force, such as the veiled threats that one's job is on the line.
"Everybody's doing it."
Appeal to Ceremony or Setting
Setting lends credibility or authority to what is said.
Appeal to Authority
Quoting an authority or his ideas to give validity to an argument, regardless of who the authority is or his area of expertise.
Appeal to Tradition
"We've always done it this way." Tradition and precedent carry weight until they are proved no longer applicable.
Appeal to Ignorance
Writer maintains that the proposition is true since it cannot be proven false.
Appeal to Humor
Humor used to divert attention from real issue or trivializing the issue... losing the issue in a laugh.
Used to possibly make a reader or hearer prejudge a case.
Consists of an attack on a view similar to but not the same as one your opponent holds. Used to divert attention from real issue. GROUP.
Two Wrongs Make a Right
Attention diverted from the issue at hand.
"It does not follow"
An appeal to the prejudices of the people. The assumption that a claim can be adequately defended without further support if an appeal is made to a belief or attitude that the audience shares with them.
Idea that first step will inevitably lead to a second undesirable step.
Issue at hand being distracted