What Kinds of Living Things Are There?

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Virus

A nucleic acid wrapped in a coat of protein and a membranous envelope (pg. 181).

Capsid

A protein coat that encloses infectious particles that makes up viruses (pg. 200).

Bacteria

A domain that also consists of prokaryotes (pg. 320).

Archaea

A domain that consists of prokaryotes (pg. 320).

Extremophile

Love extreme environments (Notes 12.15.11).

Halophile

Salt lovers (pg. 325).

Thermophile

Heat lovers (pg. 325).

Methanogen

Live in anaerobic environments and five off methane as a waste product (pg. 325).

Peptidoglycan

A polymer of sugars cross-linked by short polypeptides (pg. 321).

Gram Negative/Gram Positive

A diverse group of bacteria with a cell wall that is structurally less complex and contains more peptidoglycan than that of gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive are less toxic than gram-negative bacteria (pg. 326).

Protists

Eukaryotes that aren't animals, plants, or fungi (Notes 12.15.11).

Plant-Like Protist

Called Algae or phytoplankton, can't swim against current, all are aquatic, "seaweed" and classified by pigments (Red, brown, and green) (Notes 12.19.11).

Animal-Like Protist

Called protozoa, single cellular, classified by means of locomotion (Notes 12.15.11).

Protozoa

Protists that are heterotrophic and eat bacteria along with other protists (pg. 330).

Pseudopod

Temporary extensions of the cell (pg. 334).

Sarcodines

Protozoa that move by pseudopods (amoeboid movement) (Notes 12.15.11).

Ciliates

Protozoa that move with cilia (Notes 12.15.11).

Zoo Flagellates

Protozoa that move with flagella (Notes 12.15.11).

Sporozoan

Protozoa that do not have any means of movement, all parasites (Notes 12.15.11).

Red Algae

Algae that lives in the warm coastal waters of the tropics (pg. 336).

Brown Algae

Large, complex stramenopiles (pg. 334).

Green Algae

Are named for their grass-green chloroplasts (pg. 336).

Fungi

Have body structures and modes of reproduction unlike those of any other organisms (pg. 355).

Chitin

A structural polysaccharide used by insects and crustaceans and fungi to build exoskeletons (pg. 39).

Hyphae

A typical fungus consists of threadlike filaments (pg. 355).

Mycelium

The feeding network formed my multiple hyphae (pg. 355).

Fruiting Body

Part of fungus that is most often observed, produces spores (Notes 12.19.11).

Plant

A kingdom under the domain Eukarya, that includes the phylums bryophyte, pterophyta, gymnosperms, and angiosperms (Notes 12.19.11).

Shoot System

Made up of stems, leaves, and adaptations for reproduction (pg. 624).

Root System

Anchors the plant to the soil, absorbs and transports minerals and water, and it stores food (pg. 624).

Bryophyte

A plant that resemble other plants in having apical meristems and embryos that are retained on the parent plant, but they lack true roots and leaves (pg. 344).

Pterophyte

The phylum that is made up of ferns, need to live in water, vascular tissue (Notes 12.19.11).

Gymnosperm

A phylum in which the seed replaces the spore, sperm cells are now pollen grains, and the cones are major reproductive structures (Notes 12.19.11).

Angiosperm

Most diverse, flowering/fruiting plants (Notes 12.19.11).

Vascular Plant

A plant with xylem and phloem, including club mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms (pg. 344).

Seedless Vascular Plant

The informal collective name for lycophutes and pterophytes (pg. 345).

Xylem

A vascular tissue that includes dead cells that form microscopic pipes conveying water and minerals up from the roots (pg. 342).

Phloem

A vascular tissue that consists entirely of living cells, distributes sugar throughout the plant (pg. 342).

Cone

A reproductive structure in conifers that bear pollen or ovules (pg. 348).

Flower

The seed-bearing part of a plant that consists of reproductive organs (Notes 12.19.11).

Dicot

Type of angiosperm with 2 cotyledons, netlike leaf veins, ringed vascular bundles, usually have taproot, floral parts in multiples of 4 or 5 (Notes 12.19.11).

Monocot

An angiosperm with one cotyledon, parallel leaf veins, complex arrangement of vascular bundles, fibrous roots, and floral parts in multiples of three (Notes 12.19.11).

Animal

A kingdom under the domain Eukarya. There are endless animals that are part of this kingdom. Five examples are the: Porifera, Cnidaria, Annelida, Mollusca, and Arthropoda (Notes 12.19.11).

Anterior

The head of a bilaterally symmetrical animal (Notes 1.5.12).

Posterior

The rear of a bilaterally symmetrical animal (Notes 1.5.12).

Dorsal

The back of a bilaterally symmetrical animal (Notes 1.5.12).

Ventral

The underside of a bilaterally symmetrical animal (Notes 1.5.12).

Asymmetry

A lack of symmetry (Notes 1.5.12).

Radial Symmetry

Symmetry in which multiple planes are passed through the central axis and it results in many equal parts (Notes 1.5.12).

Bilateral Symmetry

Symmetry in which one plane can be passed through a central axis and it results in left and right halves (Notes 1.5.12).

Cephalization

The concentration of sense organs at the anterior end, bilaterally symmetric animals go through this (Notes 1.5.12).

Invertebrate

An animal that lacks a backbone (Notes 1.5.12).

Vertebrate

A chordate animal with a backbone (Notes 1.5.12).

Porifera

The phylum that includes the sponges (Notes 1.5.12).

Filter Feeder

Takes in water, filters out edible bits, then expels the waste water (Notes 1.5.12).

Cnidarian

The phylum that includes jellyfish, hydras, corals, and anemones, radial symmetry, and they are classified by body form (Notes 1.6.12).

Gastrovascular Cavity

A single, large central cavity that is a site of digestion and it circulates fluid for the internal cells (Notes 1.6.12).

Polyp

A cnidarian body form that has a cylindrical body with tentacles projecting from one end (pg. 371).

Medusa

A type of cnidarian body form that moves freely throughout the water, are shaped like an umbrella with a fringe of tentacles around the lower edge (pg. 371).

Hydra

Has stalk like body with tentacles around its mouth (Notes 1.6.12).

Cnematocyst

The cells that are the defining feature of all cnidarians, has a hair trigger that releases a spring loaded harpoon, the harpoon penetrates layers of the prey and releases venom (Notes 1.6.12)

Annelid

The phylum that includes segmented worms, all have bilateral symmetry (Notes 1.6.12).

Segmentation

When a body is divided into several little parts (Notes 1.6.12).

Hermaphrodite

Having both male and female organs (Notes 1.6.11).

Mollusk

Soft-bodied animals that most of the time are protected by a hard shell (pg. 374).

Mantle

A fold of tissue that drapes over the visceral mass and secretes a shell in mollusks such as clams and snails (pg. 374).

Bivalve

Have shells divided into two halves that are hinged together (pg. 375).

Gastropod

The largest group of mollusks and they are found in fresh and salt water as well as terrestrial environments (pg. 374).

Cephalopod

A member of the group of mollusks that includes squids and octopus (Notes 1.6.12).

Arthropod

The phylum that means jointed leg, includes insects, arachnids, and crustaceans, determined by amount of legs and the way the organism breathes (Notes 1.6.12).

Exoskeleton

An external skeleton that protects the animal and provides points of attachment for the muscles that move the appendages (pg. 378).

Crustacean

Arthropods that have 10 legs, they are all marine, and they get oxygen through their gills (Notes 1.6.12).

Insect

Arthropods who have six legs, some have wings (only invertebrates to fly), gets oxygen through tracheal tubes (Notes 1.6.12).

Arachnid

Arthropods with 8 legs, oxygen through book lungs or gills (Notes 1.6.12).

Echinoderm

The phylum that has bilateral symmetry and grows into radial as an adult, external digsters, omnivores, or herbivores. Starfish, Sea Anemone (Notes 1.6.12).

Hydrostatic Skeleton

The use of water pressure for support and movement (Notes 1.6.12).

Water Vascular System

Brings oxygen and food to internal cells and removes wastes (Notes 1.6.12).

Chordate

A member of the phylum chordate, animals that at some point during their development have a dorsal hollow nerve cord, a notochord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail (pg. 383).

Fish

A class in the phylum chordata that includes ray-finned and lobe-finned fish and sharks (pg. 393).

Scale

Hard, plate-like structure covering the body (Notes 1.10.12).

Lateral Line System

A row of sensory organs running along each side that are sensitive to changes in water pressure and can detect minor vibrations caused by animals swimming nearby (pg. 392).

Swim Bladder

A gas filled sac, that is a lung derivative that helps keep ray-finned fish buoyant (Notes 1.10.12).

Cartilagenous

Endoskeletons made of cartilage (Notes 1.10.12).

Ray-Finned Fish

Fish in which the skeleton is made of bone and the fins are supported by thin, flexible skeletal rays (pg. 393).

Lobe-Finned Fish

Fish with a series of rod-shaped bones in their muscular pectoral and pelvic fins (pg. 393).

Tetrapod

An animal that has four legs (Notes 1.10.12).

Amphibian

The class under chordate that has a larval stage and then goes through metamorphosis into adult, must remain in moist areas, must remain in water to reproduce (Notes 1.10.12).

Cloaca

The single opening in amphibians for wastes and reproduction (Notes 1.10.12).

Amniotic Egg

A shelled egg in which an embryo develops within a fluid-filled amniotic sac and is nourished by yolk (pg. 397).

Reptile

The class under chordate that includes snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles, have cloaca, ectothermic, keratinized scales, and they lay amniotic eggs on land. (Notes 1.10.12).

Bird

A member of the class Aves, are endothermic and they evolved from theropods (Notes 1.10.12).

Mammal

The class that includes humans, they are endothermic, they have hair, and the have mammary glands to produce milk (Notes 1.10.12).

Eutherian/Placental

Youth is nourished through placenta within mother, live born, fully developed (Notes 1.10.12).

Marsupial

A mammal that have a brief gestation and give birth to tiny, embryonic offspring that complete development while attached to the mother's nipples (pg. 399).

Monotreme

Egg-laying mammals (pg. 399).

Ectotherm

Animals that absorb the external heat rather than generating their own (Cold-blooded) (pg. 397).

Endotherm

An animal that uses heat generated by metabolism to maintain a warm, steady body temperature (pg. 397).

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