Intro to soc. sci. Ch.2 Notes

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Troy University

A. The Creation of Social Scientific Theory

1.theory
2.operationalization
3.observation
4.hypothesis testing
5.Paradigm
6.Hypothesis
7.subjectivity
8.objectivity

operationalization

the means, procedures, or steps for identifying and measuring the variables we want to observe

observation

looking at the world and making measurements of what is seen

subjectivity

attitudes and opinions, dependent on the experiences and tastes of the person making a judgment

objectivity

something that is independent of the mind and does not depend on one's experiences and tastes

Two Logical Systems

1.Deductive
2.Inductive

Deductive

specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles

Inductive

general principles are developed from specific observations

Public Policy and Research

Most research in Criminal Justice is linked to public policy

Theory

Theories are used to guide basic research.

Examples of Theories in Criminal Justice

Routine Activities, Critical Theory, Environmental Crime Prevention, etc.

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