Biology A & P II ; HW, Quizzes & Tests questions

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Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics

Endocrine cells __________.

1. secrete into extracellular fluid
2. contain secretory vesicles
3. perform intercellular communication
4. Endocrine cells have all of these characteristics

Are composed of amino acids

Peptide hormones ___________.

1. always contain one sugar molecule
2. are lipid soluble
3. usually bind to intranuclear receptors
4. are composed of amino acids

ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
released in response to a decrease in blood volume, an increase in the osmotic concentration of the plasma or presence of angiotensin II

Which of these is released by the neurohypophysis?

1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. FSH
4. ADH

Thyroid

Which gland is named for a nearby prominent cartilage?

1. adrenal
2. salivary
3. thyroid
4. pituitary

Parathyroid hormone

__________ elevates blood calcium ion levels.

1. Estrogen
2. Thyroid hormone
3. Parathyroid hormone
4. Calcitonin

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?

1. ADH
2. TSH
3. ACTH
4. All of these hormones stimulate the adrenal gland.

Pineal

The __________ gland secretes melatonin.

1. pineal
2. pituitary
3. neurohypophysis
4. thymus

Beta cells ; Insulin

Which cells are correctly matched to the hormones they produce?

1. beta cells; glucagon
2. alpha cells; insulin
3. acinar cells; insulin
4. beta cells; insulin

Angiotensin

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney NOT secrete?

1. renin
2. calcitriol
3. angiotensin
4. erythropoietin

ALL of these hormones are required for normal growth.

Which of these hormones is required for normal growth?

1. growth hormone
2. insulin
3. thyroid hormone
4. All of these hormones are required for normal growth.

ALL of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

1. elevated blood calcium
2. increased loss of bone minerals
3. osteopenia
4. All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is FALSE?

1. It receives inputs from the retina.
2. It produces melatonin.
3. It is controlled by adenohypophysis.
4. It promotes sleep.

Lowering blood sugar by insulin

Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

1. resistance to stress
2. lowering blood sugar by insulin
3. regulation of reproduction
4. regulation of growth

ADH, oxytocin and regulartory hormones
* Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)
* Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
* Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)
* Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
* Somatostatin
* Dopamine

What hormones are produced by the Hypothalamus?

Adenohypophsis (anterior lobe):
ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, and MSH.
Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe): release of oxytocin and ADH

What hormones are produced by the Pituitary Gland?

Melatonin

What hormones are produced by the Pineal Gland?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

What hormones are produced by the Parathyroid Glands on posterior surface of thyroid gland?

Natriuretic peptides:
-Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)

What hormones are produced by the Heart?

Thyroxine (T4) (aka tetraiodothyronine)
Triiodothronine (T3)
Calcitonin (CT)

What hormones are produced by the Thyroid Gland?

Thymosins

What hormones are produced by the Thymus (undergoes atrophy during adulthood)?

Each superanel gland is subdivided into:

Supraenal medulla:
- Epinephrine (E) 75% +/-
- Norepinephrine (NE) 25% +/-

Suprarenal cortex:
- Cortisol, Corticosterone,
- Aldosterone, Androgens and dehydroepiandrosterone(DHEA).
Glucocoids are essential for life, they are produced by the adrenal cortex. The main Glucocoids is cortisol.

What hormones are produced by the Suprarenal Glands?

Erythropoietin (EPO)
Calcitriol
renin

What hormones are produced by the Kidney?

Leptin

What hormones are produced by the Adipose Tissue?

Numerous hormones
(in Chapter 25) Digestive enzymes are enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks

What hormones are produced by the digestive Tract?

Alpha Cells - Glucagon
Beta Cells - Insulin
Delta Cells - Somatostatin
Gamma cells - secrete pancreatic polypeptide

What hormones are produced by the Pancreatic Islets (islets of Langerhans)?

secretes/produces Somatostatin

---inhibits the secretion of glucagon and insulin
---keeps blood sugar level as is

What horomes do Delta Cells secrete? What does this hormone do?

secretes Insulin

---converts glucose to glycogen

What hormone do beta cells secrete? What does this hormone do?

Secrete Glucagon

---converts glycogen into glucose

What do the alpha cells secrete? what does this hormone do?

Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

Compared the endocrine system, the nervous system is __________.

1. more localized in action
2. more rapidly acting
3. briefer in action
4. Compared to the endocrine system, the nervous system has all of these characteristics.

Both statements are true.

In paracrine communication a chemical signal acts within the tissue that produced it;
in endocrine communication the signal reaches the target cells by way of the circulation.

Are these two statements true or FALSE?

1. Both statements are true.
2. The first is false; the second is true.
3. Both statements are false.
4. The first is true; the second is false.

Intranuclear

Lipid-soluble hormones usually bind to __________ receptors.

1. G-protein coupled
2. extracellular
3. transmembrane
4. intranuclear

parathyroid hormone

Which of these hormones is NOT derived from an amino acid?

1. thyroid hormone
2. epinephrine
3. parathyroid hormone
4. norepinephrine

hypothalamus

The brain region that exerts the most direct effects on the endocrine system is the __________.

1. mesencephalon
2. thalamus
3. pons
4. hypothalamus

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which of these hormones exerts a strong effect on adrenal steroid production?

1. ACTH
2. TSH
3. LH
4. ADH

Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit ALL of these signs.

Which of these signs is often seen in patients suffering from hyperthyroid disease?

1. elevated heart rate
2. elevated body temperature
3. elevated oxygen utilization
4. Patients with hyperthyroidism often exhibit all of these signs.

Iodine

Which chemical element is necessary to make thyroid hormone?

1. thorium
2. iron
3. calcium
4. iodine

The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.

Which of these statements about the parathyroid gland is FALSE?

1. The hormone release is triggered by a rise in blood calcium.
2. They secrete a peptide hormone.
3. It is posterior to thyroid.
4. There are usually four glands.

ALL of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

Which of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release?

1. elevated blood calcium
2. increased loss of bone minerals
3. osteopenia
4. All of these might result from excessive parathyroid hormone release.

zone reticularis; norepinephrine

Which of these is mismatched?

1. adrenal medulla; epinephrine
2. zona fasciculate; cortisol
3. zone reticularis; norepinephrine
4. zona glomerulosa; aldosteron

drowsiness

Excessive secretion by the adrenal medulla can lead to all of these changes EXCEPT __________.

1. elevated heart rate
2. drowsiness
3. elevated blood glucose level
4. elevated blood pressure

pinealocytes

Melatonin is secreted by __________.

1. pinealocytes
2. pituicytes
3. ovaries and testes
4. keratinocytes

It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

Which of these statements about the pineal gland is FALSE?

1. It receives inputs from the retina.
2. It promotes sleep.
3. It produces melatonin.
4. It is controlled by adenohypophysis.

increased epinephrine secretion

A rise in blood glucose level will trigger all these responses EXCEPT __________.

1. storage of glycogen
2. storage of triglycerides
3. increased epinephrine secretion
4. increased beta cell secretion

digestive enzymes

Which of these is NOT produced by pancreatic islet cells?

1. somatostatin
2. digestive enzymes
3. glucagon
4. insulin

cortisol

Which of these is NOT a steroid hormone produced by the gonads?

1. estradiol
2. cortisol
3. progesterone
4. testosterone

leptin

Adipose cells produce a hormone called ___ that acts on the brain to reduce food intake.

1. leptin
2. insulin
3. adipin
4. renin

lowering blood sugar by insulin

Hormones often interact in an integrative way. Examples of this include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

1. regulation of reproduction
2. lowering blood sugar by insulin
3. resistance to stress
4. regulation of growth

The dominant hormone is epinephrine

Which of these statements about the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome is NOT true?

1. It precedes the exhaustion phase.
2. The dominant hormones are
glucocorticoids.
3. It follows the alarm phase.
4. The dominant hormone is epinephrine.

ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)

Which hormone stimulates the adrenal gland?

1. TSH
2. ACTH
3. ADH
4. All of these hormones stimulate the adrenal gland

angiotensin

Which of these regulatory substances does the kidney NOT secrete?

1. erythropoietin
2. angiotensin
3. calcitriol
4. renin

55% (46% - 63%)

Plasma makes up approximately what percentage of whole blood?

1. 55%
2. 65%
3. 45%
4. 38%

fibrinogen

Serum can't coagulate because the ______ has been removed.

1. albumin
2. protein C
3. immunoglobulin
4. fibrinogen

red bone marrow

The formed elements are largely produced within the __________.

1. liver
2. spleen
3. red bone marrow
4. thymus

erythropoietin

___ stimulates production of red blood cells.

1. calcitriol
2. erythropoietin
3. thymosin
4. renin

O

Which of these is NOT a surface antigen found on red blood cells?

1. O
2. B
3. A
4. Rh

monocyte

The largest white blood cell in circulation is the ____.

1. monocyte
2. eosinophil
3. neutrophil
4. lymphocyte

red bone marrow

Granulocytes are produced in _______.

1. the lymph nodes
2. white bone marrow
3. red bone marrow
4. the liver and spleen

platelets

Megakaryocytes are the source of _______.

1. most WBCs
2. neutrophils
3. platelets
4. RBCs

erythropoiesis phase

Which of these phases is NOT part of hemostasis?

1. vascular phase
2. platelet phase
3. erythropoiesis phase
4. coagulation phase

coagulation

The complex process that leads to the formation of fibrin from fibrinogen is called ______.

1. syneresis
2. fibrinogenesis
3. platelet adhesion
4. coagulation

lung

Which of these organs is NOT found in the mediastinum?

1. esophagus
2. trachea
3. lung
4. pericardial sac

right atrium

Blood flowing in the vena cava will next enter the ____.

1. right ventricle
2. left ventricle
3. right atrium
4. left atrium

right atrium

Cardiac veins empty their blood into the __________.

1. left atrium
2. right atrium
3. left ventricle
4. right ventricle

calcium

During the plateau phase of the cardiac action potential, which ion is entering the cardiac muscle cell?

1. potassium
2. calcium
3. sodium
4. hydrogen

R

Which wave is the largest in the electrocardiogram?

1. P
2. R
3. Q
4. S

SA node

The conducting system in the heart begins in the ____.

1. AV bundle
2. AV node
3. Purkinje fibers
4. SA node

closing of the mitral valve
[ventricular systole = the contraction of the heart ventricles. It begins with the first heart sound]

Ventricular systole begins with the __________.

1. closing of the aortic valve
2. opening of the mitral valve
3. opening of the aortic valve
4. closing of the mitral valve

The first is true; the second is false.

The wall of the left ventricle is thicker than the right; the left ventricle pumps more blood than the right. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

blood pressure

Which of these is NOT needed to determine cardiac output?

1. heart rate
2. end systolic volume
3. blood pressure
4. end diastolic volume

increased end-systolic volume

Which of these responses by the heart will sympathetic stimulation NOT cause?

1. increased end-systolic volume
2. increased heart rate
3. increased cardiac output
4. increased stroke volume

capillaries

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are _____.

1. capillaries
2. arterioles
3. tunica intima
4. arteries

arterial pressure greater than venous pressure

Which of these helps move blood around the systemic system?

1. right ventricle
2. smooth muscle in the tunica media
3. arterial pressure greater than venous pressure
4. venous pressure greater than arterial pressure

forces more fluid across the endothelium

Elevated capillary hydrostatic pressure ____.

1. raises arterial pressure
2. lowers heart rate
3. raises heart rate
4. forces more fluid across the endothelium

medulla oblongata

Which brain region contains the cardiovascular centers?

1. hypothalamus
2. pons
3. medulla oblongata
4. thalamus

an increase in urine production

Hemorrhage triggers all of these responses EXCEPT __________.


1. release of the venous reserve
2. an increase in urine production
3. an increase in heart rate
4. an increase in erythropoiesis

deoxygenated; to

The pulmonary trunk carries ___________ blood __________ the lung.

1. oxygenated; from
2. oxygenated; to
3. deoxygenated; to
4. deoxygenated; from

coronary

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the aortic arch?

1. left subclavian
2. left carotid
3. brachiocephalic
4. coronary

femoral

Which of these arteries does NOT originate on the abdominal aorta?

1. iliac
2. femoral
3. splenic
4. renal

ligamentum arteriosum

The remnant of the fetal ductus arteriosus is the _____.


1. fossa ovalis
2. foramen ovale
3. umbilical strand
4. ligamentum arteriosum

decrease in arterial wall stiffness

All of these changes in the cardiovascular system are commonly seen in aging EXCEPT _______.

1. decrease in hematocrit
2. decrease in arterial wall stiffness
3. decrease in cardiac output
4. decrease in valve efficiency

decreased ADH secretion

In the case of hemorrhage, the body mobilizes all these defenses EXCEPT _________.

1. increased peripheral resistance
2. increased heart rate
3. decreased ADH secretion
4. increased thirst

ALL OF THESE are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

The cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata control __________.

1. heart rate
2. cardiac contractility
3. peripheral resistance
4. All of these are controlled by the cardiovascular centers in the medulla oblongata.

the liver

Most of the plasma proteins required in the coagulation process are produced by __________.


1. the liver
2. lymph nodes
3. platelets
4. megakaryocytes

purified platelets

If a patient has thrombocytopenia, the best therapy is infusion of __________.

1. plasma
2. packed RBCs
3. whole blood
4. purified platelets

Q-T interval

The duration of the ventricular action potential is approximately equal to the __________ interval in the electrocardiogram.

1. QRS duration
2. Q-T interval
3. PR interval
4. ST interval

SA node

The conducting system in the heart begins in the __________.

1. Purkinje fibers
2. AV node
3. SA node
4. AV bundle

left atrium

Blood returning to the heart from the pulmonary circuit first enters the __________.

1. right atrium
2. pulmonary valve
3. pulmonary trunk
4. left atrium

end-systolic volume

The volume of blood remaining in the ventricle as diastole begins is called the __________.

1. stroke volume
2. cardiac reserve
3. end-systolic volume
4. end-diastolic volume

radial

The brachial artery branches to form the ulnar and __________ arteries.

1. axillary
2. digital
3. palmar
4. radial

transport clotting factors

An important function of thrombocytes is to __________.

1. transport clotting factors
2. transport thrombopoietin
3. transport nutrients
4. transport blood gases

capillaries

The only vessels whose walls are thin enough to exchange with the surrounding cells are __________.


1. capillaries
2. tunica intima
3. arteries
4. arterioles

aortic

The __________ valve prevents backward flow of blood into the left ventricle.

1. bicuspid
2. aortic
3. tricuspid
4. pulmonic

precapillary sphincters

Vasomotion refers to contraction-relaxation cycles of the __________.

1. precapillary sphincters
2. thoroughfare channels
3. arteriovenous anastomoses
4. venules

They are abundant

Which of these statements about basophils is NOT true?

1. They promote inflammation.
2. They are cytoplasmic granules.
3. They are abundant.
4. They release histamine.

femoral arteries

Which of these arteries does NOT branch directly from the aorta?


1. left coronary artery
2. left carotid artery
3. femoral arteries
4. right coronary artery

hemoglobin

The most abundant protein in blood is __________.

1. hemoglobin
2. albumin
3. fibrinogen
4. immunoglobulin

All of these are formed elements of blood.

The formed elements of blood consist of _________.


1. red blood cells
2. platelets
3. white blood cells
4. All of these are formed elements of blood.

conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin

The common pathway in coagulation ends with __________.

1. conversion of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin
2. release of PF-3
3. positive feedback of thrombin formation
4. adhesion of platelets to a damaged vessel wall

kidney

Which organ produces renin and erythropoietin to help maintain normal blood pressure and hematocrit?


1. brain
2. kidney
3. liver
4. adrenal

monocyte

The agranular leukocyte (agranulocyte) that is capable of phagocytosis is the __________.

1. neutrophil
2. monocyte
3. lymphocyte
4. eosinophil

visceral pericardium

The epicardium is also known as the __________.

1. visceral pericardium
2. myocardium
3. endocardium
4. parietal pericardium

oxygenated; left

The pulmonary veins carry __________ blood to the __________ atrium.

1. deoxygenated; left
2. deoxygenated; right
3. oxygenated; left
4. oxygenated; right

clots slowly dissolve

During fibrinolysis __________.

1. clots slowly dissolve
2. fibrinogen is activated
3. damaged tissue is pulled together
4. emboli form

elastic

Arteries have a tissue in their middle and internal vessel walls that veins lack, called __________ tissue.

1. elastic
2. smooth muscle
3. endothelial
4. adventitial

neutrophils

The white blood cell type that most rapidly increases in number after a bacterial infection is the __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. eosinophils
3. neutrophils
4. monocytes

The pH is slightly acidic.

EXCEPT for __________, the following statements about blood are true.

1. It contains about 55% plasma.
2. The viscosity is three to five times greater than water.
3. It contains dissolved gases.
4. The pH is slightly acidic.

B positive

A person with a type A positive blood type can safely receive blood from all of these donors EXCEPT __________.

1. B positive
2. O positive
3. A negative
4. A positive

protein

EXCEPT for the amount of __________, plasma and interstitial fluid differ little in composition.

1. protein
2. glucose
3. sodium ion
4. water

Both statements are true.

The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood in the adult circulation; the umbilical vein carries oxygenated blood in the fetal circulation. Are these two statements true or false?

1. The first statement is false; the second is true.
2. Both statements are true.
3. The first statement is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are false.

blood colloid osmotic pressure

Peripheral resistance depends on all of the following factors EXCEPT __________.


1. blood viscosity
2. blood vessel diameter
3. blood vessel length
4. blood colloid osmotic pressure

red blood cells

Reticulocyte is a stage in the development of __________.

1. lymphocytes
2. megakaryocytes
3. red blood cells
4. neutrophil

increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

As the heart ages, which of these changes is NOT normally seen?

1. decreased cardiac output
2. coronary arteriosclerosis
3. decreased ejection fraction
4. increased elasticity of the fibrous skeleton

120 days

Red blood cells (RBCs) are removed from the circulation after about __________.

1. 1 year
2. 1 day
3. 120 days
4. 30 days

both the right vagus and sympathetic nerves

Heart rate is controlled by __________.

1.the phrenic nerves
2. both the right vagus and sympathetic nerves
3. sympathetic nerves in the cardiac plexus
4. the right vagus nerve

lymphocytes

Which cell type is essential to the immune response?

1. monocytes
2. keratinocytes
3. lymphocytes
4. fibrocytes

plasma
interstitial fluid

The composition of lymph is most similar to __________.
Select all that apply:

1. gastric juice
2. blood
3. plasma
4. interstitial fluid

Y2K

All of these types of cells are lymphocytes EXCEPT ___________.


1. NK
2. Y2K
3. B
4. T

lymphocytes

Which of these defense cells are NOT phagocytic?


1. lymphocytes
2. neutrophils
3. macrophages
4. eosinophils

It must be acquired

Which of these is NOT a property of the immune response?

1. It may be cell-mediated.
2. It must be acquired.
3. It is triggered by an antigen.
4. It may be antibody-mediated.

cytotoxic T lymphocytes

Which defense cells can specifically identify and directly kill disease cells?

1. suppressor T lymphocytes
2. cytotoxic T lymphocytes
3. plasma cells
4. B lymphocytes

helper T cells

Which defense cells secretes lymphokines that regulate immunity?

1. helper T cells
2. CD8 cells
3. memory T cells
4. B lymphocytes

B cells have all of these properties.

B cells are __________.

1. capable of division
2. sensitized by exposure to antigen
3. activated by helper T cells
4. B cells have all of these properties.

Immunoglobulin B

Each of these is a class of immunoglobulins EXCEPT __________.


1. Immunoglobulin A
2. Immunoglobulin M
3. Immunoglobulin G
4. Immunoglobulin B

allergy

Delayed hypersensitivity is a type of __________.

1. allergy
2. skin infection
3. immunodeficiency disease
4. autoimmune disease

epithelial mucus

Particulate matter in the inhaled air is trapped by the __________.

1. epithelial mucus
2. pharyngeal muscles
3. paranasal sinuses
4. tracheal carina

larynx

Which of these structures is part of the lower respiratory system?

1. nasal vestibule
2. paranasal sinuses
3. pharynx
4. larynx

thyroid cartilage

The "Adam's apple" is part of the __________.

1. cricoid cartilage
2. esophagus
3. thyroid cartilage
4. pharynx

esophagus

The posterior tracheal wall contacts the __________.

1. thyroid gland
2. esophagus
3. carina
4. primary bronchus

parietal pleura

Features visible on the surface of the lung include all of these EXCEPT __________.

1. parietal pleura
2. fissures
3. lobes
4. visceral pleura

residual volume

Which of these does NOT contribute to vital capacity?

1. residual volume
2. inspiratory reserve volume
3. expiratory reserve volume
4. tidal volume

All of these properties contribute to effective gas exchange.

Which of these contributes to effective gas exchange?

1. small diffusion distances
2. high gas permeability
3. large surface area
4. All of these properties contribute to effective gas exchange.

bound to hemoglobin

Most oxygen is transported in the blood stream while it is __________.

1. bound to carbon dioxide
2. bound to hemoglobin
3. bound to albumin
4. dissolved in the plasma

both the medulla oblongata and the pons

The respiratory centers are located in __________.

1. the hypothalamus
2. both the medulla oblongata and the pons
3. the medulla oblongata only
4. the pons only

cardiovascular

The respiratory system has very extensive connections with the __________ system.

1. cardiovascular
2. endocrine
3. integumentary
4. lymphoid

liver

Which of these is an accessory organ of digestion?

1. liver
2. esophagus
3. spleen
4. appendix

lamina propria

The epithelium and the __________ make up the mucosa of the digestive tract.

1. adventitia
2. submucosa
3. lamina propria
4. serosa

The first is true; the second is false

Mechanical digestion begins in the oral cavity; enzymatic digestion doesn't begin until food enters the stomach. Are these two statements true or false?


1. Both statements are false.
2. The first is false; the second is true.
3. The first is true; the second is false.
4. Both statements are true.

esophagus and stomach

The cardiac sphincter is found between the __________.

1. small and large intestine
2. esophagus and stomach
3. pharynx and esophagus
4. heart and aorta

pepsin

Which of these is NOT secreted directly into the lumen of the stomach?

1. gastrin
2. pepsin
3. mucus
4. hydrochloric acid

cecum

The three divisions of the small intestine include all of these EXCEPT the __________.

1. duodenum
2. cecum
3. jejunum
4. ileum

hepatic vein

At the corners of a liver lobule are found complexes formed of three tiny tubes. Which of these is NOT present in the complex?

1. hepatic artery
2. bile duct
3. hepatic vein
4. hepatic portal vein

stomach

The epithelium of the large intestine microscopically most resembles that of the __________.

1. esophagus
2. jejunum
3. stomach
4. anal canal

diffusion

Lipid-soluble vitamins cross the digestive epithelium primarily by _________.

1. diffusion
2. channel-mediated diffusion
3. active transport
4. vesicular transport

nervous

The cephalic phase of stomach function is an example of the __________ system interacting with the digestive system.

1. urinary
2. nervous
3. cardiovascular
4. endocrine

heat

About 40% of the energy content of nutrients is captured as ATP. The remainder is lost as __________.

1. perspiration
2. urine
3. feces
4. heat

glycolysis

Through the process of __________, each glucose yields two pyruvate ions.

1. glycolysis
2. nutrition
3. oxidation
4. anabolism

34

36 ATP molecules can be produced during cellular respiration from a single glucose molecule. How many of those require oxygen for their production?

2
34
all of them
none of them

liver cells

Gluconeogenesis is performed by __________.

1. red blood cells
2. liver cells
3. skeletal muscle cells
4. All of these cells perform gluconeogenesis

Lipid molecules are converted into glucose molecules.

Which of these statements is NOT true about beta-oxidation?

1. It yields large amounts of ATP.
2. Two-carbon fragments are formed.
3. Lipid molecules are converted into glucose molecules.
4. It takes place in mitochondria.

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