1770's - what was built (many) in Britain to help with the Industrial Revolution?
(1) agricultural revolution (2) stable government (3) natural resources and water fronts
3 reasons - why the Industrial Revolution began in Britain?
1st modern factories in which industry?
Who was responsible for improving the steam engine and making it more useful?
To pump water from [coal] mines
Earliest steam engines were used to do what?
Crystal Palace exhibition of 1851
Britain showing off their new technology in 1851
Took the technology from Britain to Belgium [spinning technology]
Came up w/ economic nationalism:
thought that free trade should not exist, be regulated for the benefit of each country
middle classes (Factory owners; industrialists, etc.)
The Condition of the Working Class in England - Frederick Engels - who did he blame for the problems of the working class? (mass murder and whole sale robbery)
1820(started about 1750; by 1850 industrialization was complete and written)
The early industrial years in UK were rough; what year did things brighten up for the working class?
Factory Act of 1833
limited the factory workday for kids btwn 9-13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14-18 to 12 hours - no effort to regulate the hours for kids @ home or in small businesses ; under 9 had to have education
Mines Act of 1842
Prohibited women and boys under 10 from working in the mines
who were the critics who smashed up factories?
Reformers who said that the only way to make real change was to enact laws -require universal male suffrage
factory work unappealing
(1) crowded together (2) strict schedule (3) resembled prison (4) keep up w/ the pace of the machines (5) dirty (6) no good pay (7) boring and long work (8) no free time/breaks [short breaks for food] (9) less leisure and days off (10) dangerous machinery
Similar to Holy Monday in cottage industry - extend weekend; days off
Orphan kids who were living in churches
what did factory owners use for labor?
What was the most important breakthrough in energy/power that sped up the industrial revolution?
(1) it decreased the amount of travel time à more time for leisure (2) trade w/ other countries more quickly - increase national, instead of local, markets
Two major effects of having more RRs?
Combination Acts (combining people for unions and strikes)
What was the law that outlawed labor unions and strikes in Britain? 1799
Ricardo's Iron Law of Wages
Wages would never be enough for workers to have a lot of $$; bare survival
"Watt of Germany" ?
The German customs union that helped to foster trade and a sense of unity?
William Blake and William Wordsworth
Poet who was a critic of the Industrialization?
Factory owner; concerned about the conditions of workers; raised the age of childrens' workers and was pro-children's education; organized the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
1) Britain already had cheap goods out there (2) period of instability w/ international wars (3) technology of British was too advanced for them (4) Britain did not let engineers leave
Four challenges that the "followers" faced during the Industrial revolution?
(1) had a strong and stable government (2) large work force from cottage industry (tradition)
Four advantages that the "followers" faced during the Industrial revolution?
the cotton/textile industry
the first modern factories arose in which industry?
parents wanted to keep the family together, like in cottage industry
why was it that in early factories, entire families came to work together?
water ways (easy transport), atlantic economy (lots of wealth from trade), agricultural revolution lead to better fed population, enclosure movement (landless peasants who were searching for work), good bank (they had the financial means), stable government, technological advances, natural resources
8 reasons the industrial revolution began in britain?
britain was too advanced to catch up, continental countries were reliant on british cheap goods, why industrialize your own country when you can get cheap stuff from britain?
name 3 challenges that the continental countries faced when industrializing?
They could borrow/steal ideas from britain who had already invented them, the governments supported and supplied the financial basis for industrialization, tradition of putting out system provided willing workers
3 advantages of continental countries?
faster cheaper secure transportation of goods, international shipping, growth of travel
Name 3 effects of the railroads?
had the theory that The population will always outgrow the food supply
men earned more, women were in the domestic sphere
What was the sexual division of labor?