Difference between Christianity in the East and the West during the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries
There was a separation of Church and state in the West (Rome), but in the East (Constantinople), it was united. The Emperor of the East was also seen as the head of the Church.
System in which the temporal ruler extends his own power to ecclesiastical and theological matters. Such emperors appointed bishops and the Eastern Patriarch, directed the development of liturgical practices, and even aided the recruitment of monks. It says that the state has superiority over the Church.
belief that Jesus has only one nature (divine), instead of the traditional Christian teaching that Jesus has two natures, human and divine
Emperor Justinian I
The last great ruler in the Roman tradition, he undertook the collection and systemization of all Roman law.
Compiled under Emperor Justinian I, the codex was a collection and systemization of all Roman law as it had developed from his predecessors put together for the purpose of legal uniformity throughout the empire. It is the basis for canon law as well as the civil law throughout Europe.
"Holy Wisdom;" most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was built under Justinian I and is considered one of the most perfect buildings in the world. Has been a Christian Church but is currently a Mosque.
rearranged empire military; provinces became themes ruled by generals led by the emperor
crusade of Heraclius which included his invasion of Persia; was victorius and entered Jerusalem to venerate the relic of the true cross, he liberated Jerusalem (261)
Two-dimensional pictures of Christ, the Virgin Mary, or other religious figure; used as invitations or doorways to prayer; not meant to be worshipped, but many took it that way; has to include 4 things: animal, mineral, plants, and human
"image breaker;" people who believed icons were being worshipped and saw it as immoral, so they destroyed them
The First Iconoclasm
under the influence of Judaism (Name of Yahweh), Islam (depictions of Allah and Muhammad, and Monophysitism (Christ); Emperor Leo III wanted to unify the Empire but runs into "idoltry;" he issues an edict (he took the OT and thought it to mean that the world was being punished for worshipping idols); Eastern monks were persecuted for not giving up their icons; Pope St Gregory condemned this and excommunicated Leo III
The Iconophile Recovery
Second Council of Nicaea
The Second Iconoclasm
814-842: under Leo V who wanted to solidify his power
The Triumph of Iconophiles
Empress Theodora was instrumental in restoring Orthodoxy after the death of her husband Theophilus; celebrated on the 1st Sunday of Lent in the Eastern Church
Reasons for Iconoclasm
Emperor Leo III thought that (because of his interpretation of the OT) that God was punishing mankind for idoltry (lies); people thought that everyone was worshiping the actualy icons, not what they stood for
Emperor Leo III
Byzantine emperor who banned the use of icons; issued an edict outlawing them (1st Iconoclasm)
succeeded Leo III as Emperor; summoned the Council of Hiereia
Council of Hiereia
A local (non-ecumenical) council convened by Constantine V to condemn the use of icons and continue iconoclasm
started the Second Iconoclasm because he wanted to solidify his power
Mother of Constantine VI; was an Iconophile; convinced the Pope to hold the 2nd Council of Nicaea; distinguished the 2 types of adoration of icons: dulia and latria
restored orthodoxy after the death of her husband Theophilus; end of iconoclasm in the East; celebrated on the 1st Sunday of Lent in the Eastern Church
Second Council of Nicaea
787: Restores images after Byzantine Iconoclasm; condemns iconoclasm as heresy; it is the last great council of the east; distinctions affirmed between Latria (adoration to God); Dulia (veneration to saints, images); proskynesis (prostration - only towards prototype, not image)
good kind of adoration; veneration through acts of respect and honor
bad: absolute adoration to the icon, not to God
St. John of Damascus
Defender of Icons and Doctor of the Church; wrote "Font of Wisdom;" used the incarnation of Christ as proof that Christ gave permission for His depiction in art forms; declared that he did not venerate the matter, "but rather the creator of the matter"
Arguments against iconoclasm
St John of Damascus said that, because of Christ's incarnation, people had the persmission to depict Christ in art forms; it was a doorway to prayer
a Frankish dynasty founded by Clovis I that reigned in Gaul and Germany from about 500 to 750; Charles Martel was in this
Frankish Dynasty founded by Pepin the Short, lasting from 751-987; Charlemagne was in this
Pepin the Short
son of Charles Martel of the Merovingian Dynasty; founder of the Carolingian Dynasty; had kingship over the Franks; St Boniface anointed him the official ruler of the Franks in 751; was expected protection from Pope St Stephen in Rome (military in the East); he saves Rome from the Lombards in 754("Donation of ___")
Donation of Pepin
Emperor Pepin's designation of the central part of Italy to be governed by the Pope; establishment of the Papal States; when Pepin defeated the Lombards for Pope Stephen II
Pope St. Leo III
Driven out of Rome and given refuge by Charlesmagne. He later crowned Charlesmagne emperor of a new entity: the Holy Roman Empire.
Son of Pepin (Carolingian); well educated; strong leader; devout Christian; Emphasized education; standardized the liturgy; "Carolingian Renaissance;" defined Medieval Western Europe; but he intergered in ecclesiastical matters (he appointed bishops); he defeated the Lombards; 1st ruler to unite the Germanic tribes; was crowned emperor by the Pope
significance of Charlemagne being crowned emperor by the Pope
Investment: the pope put the role of King on him; Byzantine was mad because they had a larger empire; the pope was allying with the Germanic tribes for defense; the Emperor in the East thinks he's the emperor but he's "replaced"- feels betrayed
The Papal States
land donated by Pepin the Short; for the 1st time the Pope became a temporal ruler; they got money and protection; but were prone to wars and potential greed
Patriarch of Constantinople; criticized the Western Church for the Filioque Clause and the use of unleavened bread; he claimed superiority over the Church by calling the Pope "brother" instead of "Holy Father," Leo IX excommunicated him; Michael then closes all Western Churches, excommunicated the Pope; and deleted the Pope's name from the Greek liturgy
"and the Son," refers to a phrase in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed; origin unknown; means that the Holy Spirit proceeds out of the Father and the Son, not just the Father; never accepted in the Eastern Church
ambitious scholar who was appointed by Emperor Michael III to be the Patriarch of Constantinople; he "excommunicated" Pope Nicholas I, and then Nicholas excommunicates him
excommunication of the Pope by the Patriarch Photius because the Pope accepted a version of the Nicene Creed with the filioque clause; original patriarch (Ignatius) was reinstated until he died, then Photius took over again
Tensions between the East and the West
Constantinople is now the capitol; the iconoclastic controversy; Charlemagne's rise to power; persistence of heresies in the East; East looks more to local patriarchs rather than the pope