***Reasons for decline of Abbasid in the 9th century BC?
Difficulty of moving armies across the great distances of the empire, retention of regional identities by the population, and difficulty of compelling local administrators to obey (no city collapse)
***rule of succession to the office of caliph during the Abbasid dynasty?
No accepted rule of succession
How did the Shi'i react to the later Abbasid dynasty?
Shi' revolts and assassination attempts plagued the dynasty
***Results of the civil wars following Al-Rashids death?
Candidates for the throne needed to build personal armies of slave soldiers
***What caused the collapse of the agricultural economy during the Abbasid Caliphate?
Spiraling taxation, irrigation destroyed, pillaging by mercenary armies led to abandonment
Why did Abbasids creation of the Harem imply?
Increasing seclusion of women from public life
order of the Baghdad conquerors?
Buyid, Seljuk, Turks, Mongols
Religion of the Buyids?
In what way was the conquest of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks beneficial to Islam?
Turks restored the ability of the empire to meet the challenges of Fatimid Egypt and the Byzantine Empire.
Commander who conquered the crusades
***Trend of urbanization during the Abbasid Empire?
Despite political disintegration and a decline in agricultural economy, towns still grew rapidly
Movement within Islam that emphasized mysticism and charismatic worship?
Movement within Islam that stressed a more conservative interpretation of the law and religious text?
***Islam and Hindu difference?
Islam wanted equality, Hindu wanted caste system
First region of India conquered by the Muslims in 711?
Sufi proved to be effective missionaries for Islam in South Asia cause...?
they shared much with Indian mystics and wandering ascetics.
Islam did not expand in SE Asia till after whose fall?
Al-Mahdi's attitude toward the Shi'ite?
He appealed to the moderate factions of the Shi'is to support the Abbasid Dynasty
Literary figure during Abbasid Empire?
Who didn't revolt against the Abbasid?
Fictional character of life at the court of the caliph Al-Rashid
Thousand and One Nights
***How did Islam spread to South East Asia?
Port cities were points of dissemination to other links in trading networks
Nature of Islamic religion that developed in southeast Asia?
Islam came to SE Asia from India and was spread by Sufi holy men, developed mystical nature incorporated much of indigenous religion
How did the administration of Al-Rashid set a trend for subsequent Abbasid rulers?
Outset of is reign heavily dependent on Persian advisers, a practice that became common afterward
What was the shah-Nama
history of Persia from creation to conquest
How did the political center of Islam change after the Mongol invasion?
Baghdad became a provincial backwater, supplanted by Cairo to the east and soon thereafter Istanbul to the north
***Difference between Islam invasions of India and other invasions of subcontinent?
With the Muslims, the peoples of India encountered for the first time a large-scale influx of invaders with a civilization as sophisticated as their own.
***What accounts for the disruption of the agricultural economy of the Abbasid Empire?
Spiraling taxation, the destruction of the irrigation works, and pillaging by mercenary armies led to destruction and abandonment of many villages.
-What was the innovation of the Abbasid court with respect to women?
the establishment of the harem
-What was the attitude of the Abbasid's towards the institution of slavery?
The Abbasid elite demanded growing numbers of both male and female slaves for concubines and domestic service.
-Why were the practices of seclusion and veiling seen as essential in Islamic society?
Women were believed to be possessed of insatiable lust from which men had to be protected.
***Which of the following statements concerning women during the Abbasid era is most accurate?
Women often married at puberty, set at age nine.
***Who was the Muslim leader responsible for the reconquest of most of the territories belonging to the Christian Crusaders?
***What accounts for the success of the First Crusade?
Muslim political fragmentation and the element of surprise
***What was the impact of the Crusades on the Christian West?
Christians adopted military techniques, words, scientific learning, and Arabic numerals among other things.
***Which of the following statements concerning the Sufi movement within Islam is most accurate?
The Sufi movement incorporated mysticism with a trend toward evangelism.
***What was the most critical cultural advance as a result of the increased contact between Muslims and Indian civilization
Muslims adopted the system of mathematical notation later referred to as Arabic numerals.
***What groups were responsible for the conversion of Indians to Islam?
traders and Sufi mystics
***What groups in India were most likely to convert to Islam?
Buddhists and low caste Hindus
***How did caliph al-mahdi solve the problem of succession for Abbasid?
he failed to solve the problem
new church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian
one of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe
byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula
images of religious figured that became objects of veneration within Christianity of the byzantine empire
trade city in southern Russia established by scandinavian traders in 9th century
ruler of Russian kingdom of Kiev from 980 to 1015 (converted kingdom to Christianity)
another name for mongols
eastern half of the roman empire survived after the 5th century as the
the byzantine emperor that was responsible for the attempted reconstruction of the political unity of the ancient roman empire
one of the military technological achievements of the byzantine empire was the invention of
a weapon used against Arab fleets
the Slavic kingdom established in the northern portions of the Balkan peninsula as a major rival to the byzantine empire
images of religious figures that became objects of veneration in byzantine Christianity
a crusade led by what kind of merchants conquered Byzantium and temporarily unseated the byzantine emperor
the form of Christianity that developed in Byzantium and spread to Russia and the Balkans was referred to as
the russian ruler credited with converting the country to christianity
Russian aristocrats that had less political power than their counterparts in western Europe
a large force of mongols that captured the major Russian cities
City in western Arabia; birthplace of the prophet Muhammad and ritual center of the Islamic religion
Arab prophet; founder of the religion of Islam
An adherent of the Islamic religion; a person who "submits" (In Arabic, Islam means "submission") to the will of God
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Qur'an. In the tradition of Judaism and Christianity, and sharing much of their lore, _______ calls on all people to recognize one creator god - Allah- who rewards or punishes believers after death according on how they led their lives
City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community
Office established in succession to the Prophet Muhammad, to rule the Islamic empire; also the name of that empire
Book composed of divine revelations made by the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that God vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali.These people and their religion constitute the state religion of Iran.
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661-750). From their capital at Damascus, the _________ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries
Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, the ________ __________overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded 762) from 750 to 1258
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the 9th and 10th centuries. ______ eventually founded their own state, ruling in Egypt and Syria (1250-1517).
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the 6th and 13th centuries CE. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast; first known sub-Saharan beneficiary of the new exchange system of Africa, the trade across the Saharan desert
Muslim religious scholars. From the 9th century onward, the primary interpreters of Islamic law and the social core of Muslim urban societies; Arabic for "people with (religious) knowledge" - worked against any permanent division of the Islamic umma
A tradition relating to the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Qur'an, the most important basis for Islamic law
King of the Franks (r. 768-814); emperor (r. 800-814). Through a series of military conquests, he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival
Literally "middle age", a term that historians of Europe use for the time period ca. 500-1500 CE that signified the intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the 4th century onward, with its capital at Constantinople. Fell to the Ottomans in 1453
State established in Ukraine ca. 880 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population
A formal split within a religious community
In medieval Europe, a large self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord's residence, outbuildings, peasant village, and the surrounding land
In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord
In medieval Europe, land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service
In medieval Europe, a sworn supporter of a king or lord committed to rendering specified military service to that king or lord
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church, of which the pope is the head
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states and principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962 to 1806. It was where the pope "gave" power to the emperor
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands
Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, and poverty. It was a prominent element of medieval Christianity and Buddhism._________ (buildings of this way of life) were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe
Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal's neck to the shoulders; its adoption favors the spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles
(1095-1204) Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The ___________ brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation
Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfill vows, or gain absolution for sins. Other religious also have _________ traditions, such as the Muslim __________ to Mecca and the _________s made by early Chinese Buddhists to India in search of sacred Buddhist writings.
The 1,100-mile (1,771 kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire
One of the founders of the Tang Empire and its second emperor (r. 626 - 649) - very brilliant. He led the expansion of the empire into Central Asia
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 by the Li family and ended 907. The emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors of china in exchange for trading rights or strategic alliances
Empire in central and southern China (960-1126) while the Lao people controlled the north. Empire in southern China (1127 - 1279) while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for its advances in technology, medicine, astronomy, and mathematics
A very large flat-bottom sailing ship produced in the Tang, Song, and Ming Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel
A mixture of saltpeter, sulfur, and charcoal, in various proportions. The formula brought to China in the 400s or 500s was first used to make fumigators and keep away insect pests and evil spirits. In later centuries, it was used to make explosives and grenades and to propel cannon-balls, shot, and bullets. Initially used by the Song to propel clusters of flaming arrows
Term used to describe new approaches to understanding classic Confucian texts that became the basic ruling philosophy of china from the Song period to the 20th century
The Japanese word for a branch of Mahayana Buddhism based on highly disciplined meditation. It is known in Sanskrit as "dhyana", in Chinese as "chan", and in Korean as "son"
Method of printing in which each individual character is cast on a separate piece of metal. It replaced woodblock printing, allowing for the arrangement of individual letters and other characters on a page, rather than requiring the carving of entire pages at a time. It may have been invented in Korea in the 13th century. Made printing cheaper
The practice of identifying special individuals who will interact with spirits for the benefit of the community. Characteristic of the Korean kingdoms of the early medieval period and of early societies of Central Asia
Korean kingdom founded in 918 and destroyed by a Mongol invasion in 1259
Aristocratic family that dominated the Japanese imperial court between the 9th and 12th centuries
The first of Japan's decentralized military governments (1185 - 1333)
Quick-maturing rice that can allow two harvests in one growing season. Originally introduced to a region of Southern Vietnam from India, it was later sent to China as a tribute gift by the Champa state
A state based on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, between the 7th and 11th centuries C.E. It amassed wealth and power by a combination of selective adaption of Indian technologies and concepts, control of the lucrative trade routes between India and China, and skillful showmanship and diplomacy in holding together a disparate realm of inland and coastal territories
A powerful city-state in central Mexico (100 BCE - 750 CE). Its population was about 150,000 at its peak in 600
Raised fields constructed along lake-shores in Mesoamerica to increase agricultural yields
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras, but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar
Powerful post-classic empire in central Mexico (900-1175 CE). It influenced much of Mesoamerica. Aztecs claimed ties to this earlier civilization.
An ethnic state in ancient Mesoamerica, the common political building block of that region. How the Aztecs (called Mexica) were organized - were led by a tlatoani, or ruler.
A group of up to 100 families that served as a social building block of an altepetl in ancient Mesoamerica. Controlled land allocation, tax collection, and local religious life for the altepetl
Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. One of the twin capitals, founded around 1325 CE
Also known as the Mexica, this group of people created a powerful empire in central Mexico (1325 - 1521 CE). They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labor as a tax.
A system in which defeated peoples were forced to pay a tax in the form of goods and labor. This forced transfer of food, cloth, and other goods subsidized the development of lare cities. An important component of the Aztec and Inca economies
A number of dispersed, though similar, desert cultures located in what is now the Four Corners region of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah (700-1300 CE). built multistory residences and worshiped in subterranean buildings called kivas. Comes from a Navajo word meaning "ancient ones", developed an economy based on maize, beans, and squash
Form of political organization with rule by a hereditary leader who held power over a collection of villages and towns. Less powerful than kingdoms and empires, they were based on gift giving and commercial links. Found in North America, with populations as large as 10,000, and rule by a chief with both religious and secular responsibilities
Andean lineage group of kin-based community. the "clans" of Andean civilizations, each of these held land and spread responsibilities to all members of the group
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations. Was a rotational labor draft that organized members of the ayllus to work the fields and care for the llama and alpaca herds owned by religious establishments, the royal court, and the aristocracy
Civilization of the northern coast of Peru (200-700 CE). An important Andean civilization that build extensive irrigation networks, as well as impressive urban centers dominated by brick temples
Andean civilization culturally linked to Tiwanaku, perhaps beginning as a colony of Tiwanaku. Contributed to the disappearance of the Moche by putting pressure on trade routes that linked the coastal region with the highlands
Name of the capital city and empire centered on the region near lake Titicaca in modern Bolivia (375 - 1000 CE). Was distinguished by the scale of its construction and the high quality of its stone masonry
Largest and most powerful Andean empire. Controlled the Pacific coast of South America from Ecuador to Chile and from its capital of Cuzco.
System of knotted colored cords used by pre-literate Andean peoples to transmit information. Administrators used these for public administration, population counts, and tribute obligations
A people who have appeared in history as early as the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206, they established an enormous and infamous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia.
The title of Temüjin when he ruled the Mongols (1206 - 1227). It means the "oceanic" or "universal leader". The founder of the Mongol Empire
A way of life, forced by a scarcity of resources, in which groups of people continually migrate to find pastures and water
Empire created in China and Siberia by Kublai Khan
A bacterial disease of fleas that can be transmitted by flea bites to rodents and humans; humans in late stages of the illness can spread the bacteria by coughing. Because of its very high mortality rate and the difficulty of preventing its spread, major outbreaks have created crises in many parts of the world
A "secondary" or "peripheral" khan based in Persia. Their khanate was founded by Hülegü, a grandson of Genghis Khan, and was based at Tabriz in the Iranian province of Azerbaijan. It controlled much of Iran and Iraq, and parts of Armenia.
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Batu. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam, because it ruled an indigenous Muslim population. Also known as the Kipchak Horde
Member of a prominent family of the Mongols' Jagadai Khanate, he gained control over much of Central Asia and Iran through conquest. He consolidated the status of Sunni Islam as Orthodox, and his descendents, the Timurids, maintained his empire for nearly a century, then founded by Mughal Empire in India
Adviser to the Il-khan ruler Ghazan, who converted to Islam on this man's advice
Nasir al-Din Tusi
Persian mathematician and cosmologist whose academy near Tabriz provided the model for the movement of the planets that helped to inspire the Copernican model of the solar system (planets orbit sun)
Prince of Novgorod (r. 1236 - 1263). He submitted to the invading Mongols in 1240 and received recognition as the leader of the Russian princes under the Golden Horde.
From Latin "caesar", this Russian title for monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462 - 1505)
Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. 1300. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the _______ _________ was based at Istanbul (formerly Constantinople) from 1453 to 1922. It encompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, the Caucasus, and eastern Europe
Last of the Mongol Great Khans (r. 1260 - 1294) and founder of the Yuan Empire; Attempted to create a synthesis of Mongol and Chinese traditions.
In Tibetan Buddhism, a teacher or priest
China's northern capital, first used as an imperial capital in 906 and now the capital of the People's Republic of China; Used as the capital of the Yuan Empire, and became the center of cultural and economic life
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. The later years of this empire saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline
The third emperor of the Ming Empire (r. 1403 - 1424). He sponsored the building of the Forbidden City, a huge encyclopedia project, the expeditions of Zheng He, and the reopening of China's borders to trade and travel.
An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa
The dynasty that ruled Korea from the fall of the Koryo kingdom to the colonization of Korea by Japan; centered their capital in Seoul and sought to reestablish a distinctive Korean identity
The "divine wind" or "wind of the Gods" which the Japanese credited with blowing Mongol invaders away from their shores in 1281 (a typhoon)
The second of Japan's military governments headed by a shogun (a military ruler). Sometimes called the "Muromachi Shogunate". Took control at the imperial center of Kyoto in 1338, when the Mongol threat was waning
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan
Equatorial region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. It is characterized by generally warm or hot temperatures year-round, though much variation exists due to altitude and other factors. Temperate zones north and south of the _______ generally have a winter season
Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling land-masses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters. These strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors, and the large amounts of rainfall that they deposit on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year
Centralized Indian empire of varying extend, created by Muslim invaders
Empire created by indigenous Muslims in western Sudan of West Africa from the 13th to 15th century. It was famous for its role in the trans-Saharan gold trade
Mansa Kankan Musa
Ruler of Mali (r. 1312 - 1337). His pilgrimage through Egypt to Mecca in 1324-1325 established the empire's reputation for wealth in the Mediterranean world
Region of western India famous for trade and manufacturing
Characteristic cargo and passenger ships of the Arabian Sea
East African shores of the Indian Ocean between the Horn of Africa and the Zambezi River
City, now in ruins (in the modern African country of Zimbabwe), whose many stone structures were build between about 1250 and 1450, when it was a trading center and the capital of a large state
Port city in the modern south Arabian country of Yemen. It has been a major trading center in the Indian Ocean since ancient times
Port city in the modern Southeast Asian country of Malaysia, founded about 1400 as a trading center on the strait located between the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea
A Persian-influenced literary form of Hindi written in Arabic characters and used as a literary language since the 1300s
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali Empire, ________ became a major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
Two major civilizations
Byzantine- Eastern Orthodox Church
Two major civilizations
Byzantine- Eastern Orthodox Church
a. Maintained high level of political, economic, cultural life
b. Leaders saw selves as Roman Emperors
c. Empire lasted for 1000 years until Turkish invaders
d. Constantinople - most , important city in Europe
e. Spread civilization to previously uncivilized areas (Russia,Balkans)
The period in western European history between the fall of Roman Empire and the fifteenth century.
Sea-Going Scandinavian raiders who disrupted coastal areas of Europe from the eighth to eleventh centuries; pushed across the Atlantic to Iceland, Greenland, and North America.
System of economic and political relations between landlords and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor for access to land.
Peasant agriculture laborers within the manorial system.
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils.
One-third of land left unplanted each year to increase fertility
King of the Franks; converted to Christianity ca. 496
Royal house of Franks from eighth to tenth centuries.
Carolingian monarch of Franks; defeated Muslims at Tours in 732.
Carolingian monarch who established large empire in France and Germany ca. 800.
Holy Roman Emperors
Rulers in northern Italy and Germany following break-up of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor but failed to develop centralized monarchy.
Relationships among the military elite during the Middle Ages; greater lords provided protection to lesser lords in return for military service.
Members of the military elite who received land or a benefice from a lord in return for military service and loyalty.
French dynasty ruling from the tenth century; developed a strong feudal monarchy.
William the Conqueror
Invaded England from Normandy in 1066; established tight feudal system and centralized monarchy in England.
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchical claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult their vassals.
Hundred Years War
Conflict between England and France (1337-1453)
Pope Urban II
Called first Crusade in 1095; appealed to Christians to free the Holy Land from Muslim control.
St. Clare of Assisi
Thirteenth-century founder of a women's monastic order; represented a new spirit of purity and dedication to the Catholic church.
Eleventh-century pope who attempted to free church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture of bishops.
Author of Yes and No; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated logical contradictions within established doctrine.
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris author of Summas; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of god.
An organization of north German and Scandinavian cities for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance
Associations of workers in the same occupation in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship, discourage innovations; often established franchise within cities.
Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
Iberian Muslim philosopher; studied Greek rationalism; ignored among Muslims but influential in Europe.
Replaced Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted large trade expeditions to southern Asia and Africa; later concentrated on internal development within China; restored civil service exam.
Muslim Chinese seaman; commanded expeditions throughout the Indian Ocean.
14th-century bubonic plague; decimated populations in Asia and Europe.
Cultural and political elite movement beginning in Italy circa 1400; based on urban vitality and expanding commerce; produced literature and art with distinctly more secular priorities than those of the European Middle Ages.
Portugal, Castile, and Aragon
Regional Iberian kingdoms; participated in reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Italian author and humanist; a major literary figure of the Renaissance.
Genoese explorers who attempted to find a western route to the "Indies"; precursors of European thrust into southern Atlantic.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese explorer; first European to reach India by sea around Africa.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince; sponsored Atlantic voyages; reflected the forces present in late post classical Europe.
Judging foreigners by the standards of one's own group; leads to problems in interpreting world history.
Polynesian people in present day New Zealand.
Attempt to remake the Japanese monarch into an absolutist Chinese-style emperor; included attempts to create professional bureaucracy and peasant conscript army.
Japanese city later called Kyoto; built to escape influence of Buddhist monks.
Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki; first novel in any language; evidence for mannered style of Japanese society.
Mid-9th-century Japanese aristocratic family; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administered the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Mounted troops of the bushi; loyal to local lords, not the emperor.
Ritual suicide in Japan; also known as hari-kiri; demonstrated courage and was a means to restore family honor.
Military government established by the Minamoto after the Gumpei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Military leaders of the bakufu.
A warrior family closely allied with the Minamoto; dominated the Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; ruled in name of emperor.
Member of Minamoto family; overthrew Kamakura regime and established Ashikaga Shogunate (1336-1573); drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshio.
Warlord rulers of small states following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded mini-states.
Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by the Han in 109 BCE.
Extensive adaptation of Chinese culture in other regions.
Korean kingdom in the Southeast; became a vassal of the Tang and paid tribute; ruled Korea from 668.
Korean dynasty (1392-1910); succeeded Koryo dynasty after Mongol invasions; restored aristocratic dominance and Chinese influence.
Leaders of a rebellion in Vietnam against Chinese rule in 39 CE; demonstrates importance of women in Vietnamese society.
Khmers and Chams
Indianized Vietnamese peoples defeated by Northern government at Hanoi.
Southern Vietnamese dynasty with capital at Hue that challenged northern Trinh dynasty with center at Hanoi.
Nature spirits of Japan.
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Defeated the rival Taira family in Gempei Wars and established military government in 12th-century Japan.
System in which people surrounding China sent emissaries who offered tribute to the Chinese emperor and acknowledged the superiority of the emperor and China.
Dynasty that ruled in north Vietnam at Hanoi, 1533 to 1772; rivals of Nguyen family in South.