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Describe how climate and politics have shaped Georgia's economy.

Agriculture is a major industry in Georgia; the subtropical climate supports the growth of grapes, citrus, tobacco, silk, peaches and tea. It is also a popular tourist destination. The fall of communism dropped the gross economic product and increased inflation.

Explain how political and religious differences with its neighbors have affected Armenia.

Mount Arat, where Noah's Ark settled, is an important symbol in Armenia. However, it lies within the boundaries of Turkey and this creates conflict. The Turks also attempted to deport the whole Armenian population during WWII. Armenians have fought with the Azeri over religion. There is also conflict because the Soviet Union placed Armenia under Azerbaijan rule for a time.

Identify conflicts over economic recovery and environmental issues in Azerbaijan.

The conflict with Armenia led to severe economic problems. Azerbaijan hopes to develop its oil reserves to compensate for these problems. Russia tries to limit their development of these reserves by monitoring their use of oil pipelines. Petroleum and chemical industries have created environmental problems. The Caspian Sea has been polluted and many fish have died. The air is also pollute because of overuse of pesticides and fertilizers.

Describe the physical features of the Central Asian nations.

The terrain is greatly varied. The elevation is high in the southeast, there is a large glacier in Tajikistan, elevation drops and land flattens in the west. The Syr Darya and Amu Darya are two large rivers that flow into the Aral Sea. Climate is arid or semiarid. Chernozem and oil are important resources.

Relate the effects of Islam on the people of Central Asia.

Most Central Asians are Muslims who practice Islam. Islam was weak to begin with and intensified when the area merged with the Soviet Union. When new governments formed in the 1990s, leaders were mostly restrictive with religion. Leaders in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan helped introduce Islam.

Explain how the economies of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan changed under Soviet control.

The Soviets encouraged village life and massive agricultural development. They also built huge irrigation systems and encouraged industrial development.

Recognize the impact of irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers on the region's environment.

An irrigation project developed by the Soviets to provide water for crops dried up the Aral Sea and made it very salty. Clouds of sand from the area blew around making desertification occur even faster. Also, excessive pesticide and fertilizer use has made soil, running water and groundwater contaminated.

Explain how the Ottoman Turks tried to unite the peoples of the Middle East.

They didn't impose Islamic law on non-Muslims and let citizens practice their beliefs freely.

Explain why European powers took control of the nations of Southwest Asia after World War I.

The British agreed to support a separate homeland for all Arabs if Husayn, an Arab ruler, revolted against the Ottomans. Britain and France were secretly planning to divide the Ottoman Empire between themselves. This limited the Arab state to Saudi Arabia and Yemen, gave Syria to French, Iraq to Britain and put Palestine under national control.

Describe how the creation of Israel affected relations between Arabs and Jews.

The Jews accepted the UN plan to partition Palestine and make Jerusalem a international city. The Arabs rejected it. Just after Palestine was divided, 5 neighboring Arab countries attacked Israel. By the end of the war, Israel, Jordan and Egypt had obtained all of the land and the Arabs were without a homeland.

Discuss how Israel has changed its environment to make its land more productive and to increase prosperity.

Israelis built a system of pipelines, canals and tunnels from the Sea of Galilee to carry water to irrigate the Negev Desert. They have also begun to use drip irrigation, reuse treated wastewater, and store runoff. They have built processing plants to extract potash from the Dead Sea. Migration to the desert was encouraged and Israel developed its weaponry, medical technology, aerospace equipment and electronics.

Identify the major cultural groups in Israel and the roles they have played in the nation's history.

Ashkenazi Jews, Shephardic Jews and Arabs. Most who immigrated before 1948 were Ashkenazi Jews from northern and eastern Europe. After 1948, over half of the Jews immigrating to Israel were Shephardic from southern Europe, Southwest Asia, North Africa and Asia. At first, the Shephardic were unskilled and not influential in society. Now, they are equal to the Askenazi. The diverse religous groups make for conflict within government. *Note: Arabs serve in the Knesseet and form political parties but CANNOT serve in the military.

List the steps that Israel and its Arab neighbors have taken to prevent conflict.

Previously- Palestinians refused to acknowledge the right of Israel to exist and Israel was unwilling to allow a Palestinian homeland
1987- Palestinians used different forms of resistance ad Israel responded with military force.
1993- Agreed to terms.
Various actions by both sides caused tension and anger.
Late 1990s- Israeli governments negotiated with Palestinians but could not agree on terms
2000- Bill Clinton facilitated peace talks to no avail
2004- New Palestinian leader elected

Summarize how political conditions have changed society in Jordan.

After the 1948 war between the Arab countries and Israel, Jordan annexed West Bank and East Jerusalem which provided them with fertile land to grow crops. This also encouraged herding and growth of industry. Jordan lost East Jerusalem in 1967 when Jordan, Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. Palestinian refugees have fled to Jordan after the Arab-Israeli wars and they have a major impact on society.

Describe how Lebanon has recovered from civil war.

Political groups agreed to share power in a formal agreement in 1991. Muslims gained more influence in politics and sectarian divisions in the government were solidified. Fighting stopped and the entire economy rebounded.

List the geographic factors and economic activities that make Syria a prosperous land.

Located on the eastern edge of Mediterranean between Europe, Africa and Asia. This makes it an ideal trade location. Syria also has rich farmland so agriculture thrives.

Explain why there has been a series of conflicts in Iraq.

When turmoil began in Iran, Iraqi dictator Suddam Hussein occupied a disputed border area and invaded Iran. Also under the rule of Hussein, Iraq invaded Kuwait in 1990. Hussein was removed from power in 2003. Since then, there has been conflict between the Shiite and Sunni Muslims over who was the successor of Mohammed.

Explain how the discovery of oil changed the Arabian Peninsula.

It gave the government money to pay for modernization and strengthen infrastructure. They were also able to provide free or heavily subsidized health services to their citizens. Desalination plants to create more clean water were also built.

Describe how Saudi Arabia has tried to balance modern-day changes and economic growth with respect for tradition.

There are no public places of entertainment to encourage family time. Women are honored in society but cannot associate with men outside of their immediate family. They want to stay rooted in Islamic tradition.

Explain why Oman and Yemen are considered the least developed countries in the region.

Yemen only recently started to develop its oil reserves. Oman began using its oil revenues in the early 1970s but is not as modernized as other Middle Eastern countries. Yemen is the poorest nation on the Arabian Peninsula. Most of the land in Oman and Yemen is arid and not good for farming.

Explain how Turkey became a modern nation after World War I.

The new president Kemal made the government secular and established laws based on European legal systems. He outlawed the fez and the law requiring women to wear veils in public. Women could vote and hold office. School was encouraged.

List the effects that an Islamic revolution had on the level of development of Iran.

Western influence was eliminated. Most Iranians, who are Shiites, encouraged other Southwest Asian Shiites to overthrow their governments and establish Islamic republics. This caused Iraq to launch a war against Iran in 1980 and these caused many deaths and great country debt.

Summarize the major issue that divides the people of Cyprus.

Cyprus was split in two by civil war shortly after it gained independence in 1960. Greek Cypriots wanted Cyprus to unite with Greece but Turkish troops sent to Cyprus gained control over the northern third of the island.

Describe how physical characteristics influence patterns of settlement in Egypt.

The fertile area along the Nile known as the Nile Delta encourages people to settle along it to farm. People avoid settling in the deserts outside of this fertile region. The majority of Egypt's population lives in rural areas. But more people have moved to cities recently as they offer great educational and economic opportunities.

Identify how Egypt's past has influenced its culture.

The location of Egypt at a crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe has allowed many invasions. Egypt was ruled by both Greek and Roman conquerors in the past. When the Arabs conquered Egypt, Arabic became the official language and Islam the official religion. Over 90 percent of Egyptians are Muslim today.

Explain how efforts to control the Nile River have affected agriculture in Egypt.

Basin irrigation was good for growing crops but did not work year-round or control flooding. A large reservoir was built that provided water throughout the year. The Aswan High Dam ended flooding of the Nile but it prevented floodwaters from carrying silt to fertilize land for farming. Also, the land is increasingly salty.

List the factors that influence economic activity in Egypt.

The population is growing rapidly and the food supply and availability of jobs is running low. Egypt is dependent on the export of oil and petroleum products but experts agree that they need an industrial based export in order to succeed. However, Egypt lacks skilled workers and needed capital.

Explain how physical characteristics and changing perceptions of geography have affected cultures in Libya and the Maghreb.

People along the coast found it easier to interact with other countries than inlanders because the inlanders did not have access to navigable rivers are were blocked by the mountains and desert. Coastal regions have a blended culture of Africans, Europeans and Asians. When camels were introduced during Roman rule, North Africans could trade across the Sahara for the first time.

Describe how cooperation and conflict have led to cultural change in North Africa.

When Arabs invaded, they brought Islam and Arabic and a golden age for North Africa. The region became a center of trade and learning. France has also invaded multiple times but with much less of a cultural impact.

Identify the main settlement patterns in North Africa.

Rural: farmers live in small villages in one room mud or stone houses with large courtyards. Often there is no running water. They work all day raising wheat, barley and livestock with old-fashioned tools.
Nomads: small groups in central/southern Sahara, speak unique language, practice form of Islam, forced to settle in villages because of drought.
Urban: medinas centered around mosques and souks attract rural visitors, scarce housing and jobs, modern amenities.

Describe how ideas of government and citizenship vary among North African nations.

Libya is largely dependent on oil. Qaddafi believed in equal distribution of wealth and made the culture more conservative. Libya formerly supported terrorism but no more. Algeria began to develop education after it became independent from France. Algeria relies on oil/natural gas. Farming is encouraged- increase jobs and decrease city crowding. Tunisia value minerals, manufacturing and education.

Describe the role of trade and learning in the Sahel's history.

Northerners and residents of the Sahel continued to trade over the vast desert. Because of its central location, the Sahel's trade routes became a bridge between the Mediterranean coast and the rest of Africa. Under Mansa Musa, Tombouctou, Mali became an important center of trade, learning, and culture. After Mali's decline the Songhai Empire reached the height of intellectual influence.

Identify environmental challenges facing the Sahel today.

Shifting agriculture, which strips the soil of its nutrients, and allowing animals to graze on trees and bushes has contributed to deforestation and desertification.

List the three main goals of nations in the Sahel.

Withstanding the harsh environment, developing natural resources, and making the most of their current human resources and cultures.

Show how location has encouraged the development of trade in the coastal countries of West Africa.

They have access to the sea which offers great economic potential to the developing nations in this region.

Explain how power struggles have affected West African nations since independence.

Six coups have taken place in Benin. Major Ahmed Mathieu Krekou formed a new constitution that allowed others to have power. This caused the military government to resign and a president to take over. Other coups have caused rebellion, political unrest, oppression, fighting and slowed or overturned democracy.

Describe the relationship between the traditional cultures and the economies of West Africa.

Women are taking new initiative and are becoming a bigger part of society. They; grow crops in the war against hunger, establish agricultural cooperatives to improve the economic conditions of their villages, run markets where food is sold and sometimes even own small businesses.

Describe the regions of Nigeria.

It has extremely varied climate and vegetation regions. Going from south to north you'd find; coastal swamps, tropical rain forest, a large savanna, and desert scrub. Rainfall varies from between 120 and 20 inches a year. Cocoa trees, oil palms and rubber trees grow in the south and peanuts are grown in the north.

Recognize the effect of military leadership on Nigeria's economy and politics.

The military staged a coups and former government leaders who had stolen money were brought to trial. The leaders promised to correct the economic problems. They asked for help from the WB and IMF. The military began to give up power in 1993 and democratic elections began to occur. After one last power hungry military leader, peace was restored in Nigeria.

Describe how the physical characteristics of Central Africa affect movement in the region.

The Congo River is a great highway for food, water and transportation throughout the region but river travel is blocked below Kinshasa due to cataracts. The vast forest is a barrier to travel. People travel on the savannas and inhabit the cities or plantations with fertile soil to farm.

List the resources in Central Africa.

Hydroelectric power, rain forests, fish & fertile soil (when rivers are not dammed) and large mineral deposits.

Explain how political turmoil has affected the Democratic Republic of Congo.

For 4 years, Belgium, the UN, rebel armies and mercenaries fought for power, A general named Mobuto changed the country's name to Zaire and re-established control. In the 1980s the nation fell into deep debt. Mobutu refused to resign from office. Kaliba overthrew him and solved some problems.

Identify some major physical characteristics of Kenya.

The area near the equator is very hot but it is cool with high elevation near the Great Rift Valley. Southwest Kenya is fertile highlands. Droughts frequent Northern Kenya. The West plateau is the driest part of the country. Lake Victoria occupies the Western corner.

Describe how British rule affected the settlement of Kenya.

The building of the British railroad encouraged citizens of European nations to settle and develop Kenya. White settlers were attracted by the cool climate. Nairobi was built and flourished quickly.

Identify the economic activities that improved Kenya's economy.

Working together in "Harambee" to strengthen the economy. They began to expand agriculture and raise cash crops.

Explain why Kenyans are concerned about the government's stability.

Since 1980, there hasn't been enough food or jobs and this has caused political unrest and ethnic disagreements. The country's president, Daniel arap Moi was blamed for these problems.

Show how several countries on the Horn of Africa are strategically located.

Nations in the Horn of Africa have easy access to trade and valuable locations for military actions. They are near oil deposits and serve as the mid-point between Europe and Southeast Asia.

Identify the issues that divide the people of the Sudan.

In Sudan, Muslim Arabs in the north are at constant war with African Animists and Christians of the south. This causes much starvation, suffering and death for Sudanese citizens.

Describe the effects of drought and political conflict on the region's landlocked countries.

In Ethiopia, droughts have caused famine and starvation which have crushed the country already ruined by war with Somalia and civil war. Food was sent to aid these countries but the wars prevented the food from getting there.

Explain why Tanzania changed its system of government.

They changed their system of government- abandoned socialism to jump-start their economy.

Identify the conditions that divided life in South Africa.

The control of power by whites in South Africa started with European migration in the 1600s. These emigrants, called Afrikaners, slowly pushed the natives inland, trying to conquer as much land as possible. Then, the British arrived and intimidated the Afrikaners who moved even further inland. After the Boer War, a combined colony of British and Afrikaners was formed. After living on reserves for several years, the natives began to move to the cities.

Describe the international backlash against the white South African government.

Europe and US placed economic sanctions against South Africa. These prohibited Americans from investing in South Africa and importing South African products.

Explain how South Africa transformed from a repressive police state to a model for peaceful political change.

De Klerk, the new South African president, began to reform his country. He released Nelson Mandela from prison, which allowed Mandela to abolish apartheid and allow blacks to finally vote in elections.

Describe how Malawi and Botswana have been affected by South Africa.

They are both economically tied to South Africa so they must maintain friendly relations. Malawi has many workers in South Africa and is more dependent on it than Botswana.

Summarize how colonialism affected Angola and Mozambique.

When they on their independence in 1975, they experienced white flight. Many Portuguese settlers fled taking their wealth with them. Angola and Mozambique lost trained white administrators and technicians.

Explain the effect of farming policy on Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Zambia allowed themselves to be reliant on the country's vast copper resources and failed to develop agriculture. Then, the copper market plummeted and Zambia couldn't feed its people. Zimbabwe used land distribution and developed infrastructure to ensure that everyone could grow sufficient crops.

Describe the role Mohandas Gandhi played in India's struggle for independence

Ghandi boycotted British cloth and made his own clothes. He also organized non-violent protests.

Explain how religious conflict contributed to independence for Pakistan and Bangladesh

The conflict between India's Muslims and Hindus increased and were unable to reach agreements. British and Indian leaders agreed on partition so that they could each have a say in the government.

Analyze the role of religion in the lives of most Indians

Hindus believe that all living things have a soul that comes from the Creator, Brahma. They treat all animals respectfully, especially cows. They consider the Ganges River to be holy and go to it for healing. Their final goal in life is unity with Brahma. They achieve this through reincarnation, which they pass through until they are ready to be with Brahma.

Identify both the traditional and the modern aspects of village life in India.

There are dirt paths, not roads. Most people own bikes, not cars.There are wells, no running water. Simple furniture- charpoy. Most cooking done outside in the courtyard. Traditionally light and loose clothing is worn. People live under the Joint Family System. However, many villages now have ELECTRICITY.

Discuss how urbanization has changed the character of India.

Cities are busy and crowded but many families think the are better off in a city than in a village because it has more opportunities for work and education.

Explain how India's government is attempting to raise the country's standard of living.

They have tried to farm more land and increase irrigation and seed quality to provide more food. They have made great advances in computers, space, and consumer goods. They have also set up primary schools in villages and attempted to improve people's health.

Explain how limited rainfall affects Pakistanis.

Irrigation is a problem. Tarbela Dam was built to control the seasonal changes of the Indus River and keep a back up store of water.

Describe how political and cultural issues have affected Afghanistan.

It is ethnically diverse as the result of many invasions. It was a buffer state between Britain and Russia in the 1880s. In 1979, Soviet troops came to re-establish peace after a revolt. Civil war broke out in 1989 and the Taliban began their reign. This caused 2 decades of disturbance and unrest.

Describe the difficulties facing the people and government of Bangladesh.

Monsoon rains and raging rivers cause frequent drastic flooding. It also struggles with malnutrition and overpopulation. Bangladesh also has few roads or bridges.

Differentiate the cultures and landscapes of Nepal, Bhutan, and Sri Lanka.

Bhutan and Nepal have varying elevations, and Nepal contains the highest peak of Mt. Everest at 29,035 feet high. Also, there are lowlands where crops flourish. Bhutan is 75% Buddhist and Nepal is 90% Hindu. Sri Lanka is also varied with mountains and lowlands. The Sinhalese and Tamils inhabit Sri Lanka and often have disagreements with each other.

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