Descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas, this caliphate overthrew the Umayyad Capliphate and ruled over an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad (founded in 752) from 750 to 1758
also known as the Agricultural Revolution. The change from food gathering to food production that occured bt/wn 8000-2000 BCE
most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India. He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus
King of Macedonia in northern Greece. Between 334-323 BCE he conquered the Persian Empire, reached the INdus Valley, founded many Greek style cities, and spread Greek culture across the Middle East. Later known as Alexander the Great
3rd ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India. He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing
The network of trade routes connecting Europe, Africa, and the Americas that underlay the Atlantic system
Andean lineage group or kin-based community
Also known as Mexico, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexica, the Aztecs created a powerful empire in central Mexico. They forced defeated peoples to provide goods and labors as a tax.
collective name of a large group of Sub-Saharan African languages and of the peoples speaking those language
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid 14th century, carrying off vast numbers of persons
Historians' name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the 4th century onward, taken from "Byzantion," an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453
a small highly maneuverable three masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic
Religious reform movement within the Latin Christian Church beginning in 1519. It resulted in the "protesters" forming several new Christian denominations, including the Lutheran and Reformed Churches and the Church of England
King of the Franks; emperor. Through a series of military conquests he established the Carolingian Empire, which encompassed all of the Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival
Groups of private investors who paid an annual fee to France to England in exchange for a monopoly over trade to the West Indie colonies
Policy by which a nation administers a foreign territory and develops its resources for the benefits of the colonial power
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies bt/wn the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages
he belief that human beings are teachable, improvable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavour especially including self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucianism focuses on the cultivation of virtue and maintenance of ethics, the most basic of which are ren, yi, and li.
early 16th century Spanish adventurers who conquered Mexico, Central America, and Peru
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico
in colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in ther Americas, the term is used to describe all non-native people
Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. These brought an end to western Europe's centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation
A system in which wedge-shaped symbols represented words or syllables. It originated in Mesopotamia and was ued initially for Sumerian and Akkadian but later was adapted to represent other languages of western Asia. Because so many symbols had to be learned, literacy was confined to a relatively small group of administrators and scribes
Literally, great names. Japanese warlords and great landowners, whose armed samurai gave them control of the Japanese islands from the eighth to the later nineteenth century. Under the Tokugawa Shogunate they were subordinated to the imperial government
Chinese school of though, originating in the Warring States Period with Laozi. Daoism offered an alternative to the Confucian emphasis on hierarchy and duty. Daoists believe that the world is always changing and is devoid of absolute morality or meaning. They accept the world as they find it, avoid futile struggles, and deviate as little as possible from the Dao, or "path" of nature
Centralized Indian empire of varying extent, created by Muslim invaders
Ship of small to moderate size used in the western Indian Ocean, traditionally with a triangular sail and a sewn timber hull
Dutch West India Company
Trading company company chartered by the Dutch government to conduct its merchants' trade in ther Americas and Africa
A grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians.
A philosophical movement in 18th century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics
In medieval Europe, land granted in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service
The title of Temujin when he ruled the Mongols. It means the "oceanic" or "universal" leader. This was the founder of the Mongol Empire.
First known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries CE. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast.
Mongol khanate founded by Genghis Khan's grandson Baru. It was based in southern Russia and quickly adopted both the Turkic language and Islam. Also known as the Kipchak Horde.
The 1,100-mile (1,700-kilometer) waterway linking the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers. It was begun in the Han period and completed during the Sui Empire.
Great Western Schism
A division in the Latin (Western) Christian Church between 1378 and 1417, when rival claimants to the papacy existed in Rome and Avignon
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled 16th and 17th century Spain
A tradition relating the words or deeds of the Prophet Muhammad; next to the Quran, the most important basis for Islamic
Among ruler of Babylon. He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws., inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases
A term used to designate (1) the ethnic Chinese people who originated in the Yellow River Valley and spread throughout regions of China suitable for agriculture and (2) the dynasty of emperors who ruled from 206 BCE to 220 BCE
Historians' term for the era, usually dated 323-30 BCE, in which Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great. The period ended with the fall of the last major Hellenistic kingdom to Rome, but Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam in the 7th century BCE
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince who promoted the study of navigation and directed voyages of exploration down the western coast of Africa
A general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity. Hinduism has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices. It spread along trade routes to Southeast Asia.
Powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessor, in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture.(186)
Holy Roman Empire
Loose federation of mostly German states principalities, headed by an emperor elected by the princes. It lasted from 962-1806
A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation. These armies - militias composed of middle, and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment - were for centuries superior to all other military forces
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families.
Moroccan Muslim scholar, the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
a member of the small group of Quechuan people living in the Cuzco valley in Peru who established hegemony over their neighbors to create the great Inca empire that lasted from about 1100 until the Spanish conquest in the early 1530s
European scholars, writers and teachers associated with the study of the humanities (grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, languages, and moral philosophy), influential in the 15th century and later
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution (paying for release of sins)
Christian boys taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan of the ottoman empire. Became politically and militarily powerful, and people would pretend their Muslim kids were christian.
Religion expounded by the Prophet Muhammad on the basis of his reception of divine revelations, which were collected after his death into the Quran. In the tradition of Judaism and Christianity, and sharing much of their lore; Islam calls on people to recognize one creator god - Allah - who rewards or punishes believers after death according to how they led their lives
A very large flatbottom sailing ship produced in the Tang and Song Empires, specially designed for long-distance commercial travel.
A business, often backed up a government charter, that sold shares to individuals to raise money for its trading enterprises and to spread risks and profits) among many investors
Qing emperor. He oversaw the greater expansion of Qing Empire.
State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic farming population.
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime.
Under the Islamic system of military slavery, Turkic military slaves who formed an important part of the armed forces of the Abbasid Caliphate of the ninth and tenth centuries. Mamluks eventually founded their own state, ruling Egypt and Syria (1250-1517)
In Indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives that adheres to a "spirit" and determines what form it will assume in its next life cycle. The doctrines of karma and reincarnation were used by the lite in ancient India to encourage people to accept their social position and do their duty
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China, started by the Zhou dynasty, in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west africa.
Mesoamerican civilization concentrated in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and in Guatemala and Honduras but never unified into a single empire. Major contributions were in mathematics, astronomy, and development of the calendar
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought (Europe in 18th C)
Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He.
Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations.
Muslim state (1526-1857) exercising dominion over most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
term that describes the resurgence of Confucianism and the influence of Confucian scholars during the T'ang Dynasty; a unification of Daoist or Buddhist metaphysics with Confucian pragmatism
a Japanese warrior who was a member of the feudal military aristocracy
The period from 507 to 31 BCE during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method, careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Muslims belonging to the branch of Islam believing that god vests leadership of the community in a descendant of Muhammad's son-in-law Ali. This is the state religion of Iran.
Caravan routes connecting China and the Middle East Across Central Asia and Iran
Empire in central and southern China while the liao people controlled the north. Empire in southern China while the Jin people controlled the north. Distinguished for it's advances in technology, medicine, astronomy and mathematics
Empire unifying China and part of Central Asia, founded 618 and ended 907. This empire's emperors presided over a magnificent court at their capital, Chang'an.
Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries.
state that acquires prestige and power by developing attractive cultural forms and staging elaborate public ceremonies (as well as redistributing valuable resources) to attract and bind subjects to the center.
political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C.E.: frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near-destruction of long-distance commerce.
A people, language, kingdom, and empire in western Sudan in West Africa. At its height in the 16th century, this Muslim Empire stretched from the Atlantic to the land of the hausa and was a major player in the trans-Saharan trade
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire; also known as Suleiman Kanuni, "The Lawgiver." He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean.
City on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, it became a major major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning
A system in which, from the time of the Han Empire, countries in East and Southeast Asia not under the direct control of empires based in China nevertheless enrolled as tributary states, acknowledging the superiority of the emperors in China.
First hereditary dynasty of Muslim caliphs (661 to 750). From their capital at Damascus, they ruled an empire that extended from Spain to India. Overthrown by the Abbasid Caliphate.
A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoroaster. It centered on a single benevolent deity-Ahuramazda, Emphasizing truth-telling, purity, and reverence for nature, the religion demanded that humans choose sides between good and evil
He lead seven great voyages. After he died, the government decided they didn't want to focus on voyages anymore, and put all their focus on Chinese culture. The government stopped the building of ships and letting ships with more than 2 masts come in.