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Semester 1 Exam Review

Why were the founders of the Plymouth Colony called pilgrims?

The Plymouth colonists believed they were making a religious journey

What religious group founded Pennsylvania?

Quakers

Why did the American colonists object to paying taxes to the British government?

The colonists were not allowed to vote for members of Parliament

Why did the American colonists think that taxation by the British was unfair?

The colonists had no elected representation in the English Parliament.

Which colony was founded by Catholics on land given by King Charles I?

Maryland

Which American leader's discoveries and inventions characterized the Enlightenment?

Benjamin Franklin

What was a key theme of the period known as the Great Awakening?

Salvation does not depend on membership in a single church

What was George Washington's role during the American Revolution?

commander in chief of the Continental Army

What document promotes the idea that all people are created equal and are entitled to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?

Declaration of Independence

"People are created equal and entitled to live, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness", best describes the self-evident truths of what document?

Declaration of Independents

Which document provided the first basic governing structure for the United States?

Articles of Confederation

What was the purpose of the Articles of Confederation?

to provide a governing structure for the nation

Which document established the first government of the United States?

Articles of Confederation

Who proposed the system of checks and balances that was included in the U.S. Constitution?

James madison

Which phrase describes one of the goals of the U.S. Constitution as found in the Preamble?

to ensure domestic tranquility

How did the Louisiana Purchase benefit the United States?

It doubled the size of the United States and provided access to the Mississippi River.

Who proposed the system of checks and balances that was included in the U.S. Constitution?

James Madison

What issue most clearly divided Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party and Alexander Hamilton's Federalist Party?

whether federal or state governments should have more power

Which branch of government declares war, approves constitutional amendments, and begins impeachment proceedings?

Legislative

Which of the following is an example of a right or freedom guaranteed by the Bill of Rights?

the right to speak your mind in private or in public, protection from unreasonable searches, the freedom to practice the religion of your choice

What federal government position did John C. Marshall hold for 35 years?

chief justice of the Supreme Court

How did Andrew Jackson appeal to voters during the election campaign of 1828?

He used slogans, posters, and songs.

What tactic of Andrew Jackson's presidential campaign secured his election?

He rallied voters by holding events, such as barbecues, that appealed to them.

How did Herbert Hoover's philosophy of government affect the Depression?

It deepened the Depression because nothing was done to address the causes

What effect did Herbert Hoover's beliefs about government have on the American economy?

They deepened the Depression because the government did not take action.

What happened to marriage and birth rates during the Great Depression?

They declined as people became reluctant to take on additional responsibility.

What happened in the Great Plains when severe drought followed the removal of native grasses?

Strong winds blew away topsoil and created a Dust Bowl.

How did many farmers deal with the effects of the Dust Bowl?

They left their farms for California.

In addition to lost jobs and poverty, what was another impact of the Great Depression on American lives?

a drop in marriage and birth rates

Which was a cause of the Dust Bowl in the Great Plains?

Native grasses were removed to produce wheat, leaving nothing to hold the soil in place.

How did buying stocks on credit contribute to the Great Depression?

When stock prices fell, people did not have the money to cover their losses.

What was one cause of the October 1929 stock market crash?

falling stocks purchased on credit

Which presidents' administrations emphasized big business and corporate power?

Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover

What brought a ban on the sale of alcohol and an increase in organized crime to the United States during the 1920s?

passage of the 18th Amendment

How did the 18th Amendment cause conflict in the United States?

Some people believed that the prohibition of alcohol was unconstitutional.

What was a common element of the Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover administrations?

an emphasis on big business and corporate power

What did severe drought, stock speculation, and a banking crisis in the late 1920s lead to?

the Great Depression

Which group in the 1920s opposed immigration, feared the Red Scare, and believed white Protestants were better than others?

Ku Klux Klan

What 1920s movement renewed African American culture in art, music, literature, drama, and dance?

the Harlem Renaissance

What group could be described for the first time in the 1920s with the terms flapper, wage-earner, and voter?

Women

Which is a territory that the United States gained as part of the settlement of the Mexican-American War?

California

How did the United States acquire California?

Mexico ceded California as part of the treaty that ended the Mexican-American War.

Which idea states that it was God's plan for the United States to expand across the continent?

manifest destiny

Which best explains the concept of manifest destiny?

the idea that it was God's plan for the nation to expand across the continent

How did the Republican Party begin in the 1850s?

Several northern antislavery groups united.

Which are two states that seceded from the Union before the Civil War?

South Carolina and Georgia

What was one reason that South Carolina decided to secede from the Union?

to uphold the rights of property owners

What was one success of Reconstruction after the Civil War?

Southern states rejoined the Union.

What was one of the failures of Reconstruction after the Civil War?

Political opportunities for African Americans disappeared after a short time.

Which of the following was primarily a political challenge that the United States faced after the Civil War?

citizenship rights for freed slaves

How did western expansion affect Native Americans?

It forced them from their lands.

What happened to Native Americans during western expansion?

They were forced to give up their lands.

What did the federal government do in response to union-led strikes in the late 1800s?

acted quickly to end strikes, using both the courts and federal troops

Which was a business practice employed by the titans of industry in the late 1800s?

building monopolies

Which practice originated in the railroad industry and influenced modern business practices?

Railroad owners sold stock to finance the construction of railroads.

Why did the government act quickly to end union-led strikes in the late 1800s?

There was a belief that strikes would lead to anarchy and socialism.

What is one way that immigration in the late 1800s differed from immigration in earlier periods?

In the 1800s, more immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe.

What is one way that immigration in the late 1800s differed from immigration in earlier periods?

Later immigrants came mainly from southern and eastern Europe.

What is one way that immigration in the late 1800s differed from immigration in earlier periods?

The majority of later immigrants came from southern and eastern Europe.

What legislation was enacted in 1890 to eliminate monopolies, trusts, or any agreement that restricted trade?

Sherman Antitrust Act

What was a popular term for the investigative journalists who uncovered corruption in business and government in the late 1800s and early 1900s?

muckrakers

How did ethnicity and race influence the cities of the United States in the late nineteenth century?

They helped define social stratification.

What contributed to social stratification in cities in the late 1800s?

ethnicity and race

Who were the muckrakers?

investigative journalists who uncovered corruption in business and government

What was one reform the progressive movement achieved?

direct election of U.S. senators

Which president believed in an activist government that was a "steward of the public welfare"?

Theodore Roosevelt

How did Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, and literacy tests affect blacks in the period following the Civil War?

They promoted segregation and fewer rights for blacks.

What were some of the effects of Jim Crow laws, poll taxes, and literacy tests in the period following the Civil War?

They promoted segregation and fewer rights for blacks.

Which African American leader founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute?

Booker T. Washington

What did Woodrow Wilson hope to accomplish with his "New Freedom" government?

effective government responses to social and economic issues

What was one of Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony's goals?

gain immediate women's suffrage

What was a concept put forth by African American leader W.E.B. Du Bois?

Educated African Americans should lead the race out of second-class citizenship into full equality.

Who were two pioneers of the early women's movement?

Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony

Who founded the United Negro Improvement Association, which stressed the need for black-owned businesses?

Marcus Garvey

What was one reason the United States went to war with Spain in 1898?

to protect U.S. investments in Cuba

Why did some people support imperialism despite traditional American opposition to colonization?

They wanted to compete with other nations for natural resources.

What was one argument against nineteenth-century American imperialism?

Traditional American principles opposed colonization.

What was one of Woodrow Wilson's foreign policy goals?

to have the nations of the world form an association

Which is a territory that the United States acquired as a result of the Spanish-American War?

Puerto Rico

The United States acquired several new territories during the late 1800s. Which two eventually became states?

Alaska and Hawaii

What finally brought the United States into World War I?

unrestricted German submarine attacks on shipping

Why did Woodrow Wilson want to form a League of Nations?

He thought an organization like that could assure lasting world peace.

What was the major focus of William Howard Taft's foreign policy?

Dollar Diplomacy

What was one effect of unrestricted German submarine attacks on shipping during World War I?

The United States entered the war.

What was the purpose of the Espionage and Sedition Acts passed during World War I?

to reduce debate and dissent over U.S. participation in the war

Why did government leaders want to pass the Espionage and Sedition Acts during World War I?

They thought the laws would provide national security.

How did many Americans react to increased government powers during World War I?

resented the increased government controls.

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