Name the different levels of structural organization that make up the human body- from micro to macro
What is the Chemical Level in relation to the structural organization of the human body?
the simplest level. Made up of atoms that combine to form molecules such as water and proteins
What is the cellular level in relation to the structural organization of the human body?
the smallest living units.
What is the function of nervous tissue?
provides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulses
What is the organismal level?
the highest level and represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep humans alive.
What is the principle of complementarity of structure and function?
function always reflects structure.
What are the necessary life functions?
respond to environmental changes
take in and digest nutrients
carry out metabolism
dispose of wastes
What does it mean to maintain boundaries?
keeping internal environment remains distinct from the external environmental surroundings.
What is responsiveness or irritability?
the ability to sense changes in the environment and then respond to them.
What is digestion?
the breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed into the blood.
What is metabolism?
a broad term that includes all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells.
Name the 12 organ systems
Male reproductive system
female reproductive system
Name the 4 survival needs of humans
normal body temp
appropriate atmospheric pressure
What are the 5 stages of the homeostatic control system?
1. stimulus produces change in variable
2. receptor detects change
3. input information sent along afferent pathway to control center
4. output information sent along efferent pathway to effector
5. response of effector feeds back to reduce the effect of stimulus and returns variable to homeostatic level.
What is the purpose of the integumentary system?
external body covering
protects deeper tissues from injury
synthesizes vitamin D
houses sweat and oil glands
What is the purpose of the skeletal system?
protects and supports body organs
provides framework for the muscles to use to cause movement
blood cells are formed within the bones
What is the purpose of the muscular system?
allows manipulation of the environment
What is the purpose of the nervous system?
fast acting control system of the body
responds to external and internal changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands
What is the purpose of the endocrine system?
glands that secrete hormones that regulate growth, reproduction, and nutrient use and metabolism
What is the purpose of the cardiovascular system?
*blood vessels transport blood to carry oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients and wastes
*heart pumps blood
What is the purpose of the lymphatic system?
*picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns blood
*disposes of debris in the lymphatic system
*houses white blood cells involved in immunity
*causes the immune response to attack against foreign substances within the body.
What is the purpose of the respiratory system
*keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen
* removes carbon dioxide
* exchanges gases through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs
What is the purpose of the digestive system?
*breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells
*indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces
What is the purpose of the urinary system?
*Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
* Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
What is the purpose of the male & reproduction systems?
*to produce offspring
* ducts and glands aid in the delivery of sperm to to the female reproductive tract
* Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
* Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn
What is the negative feedback mechanism?
output shuts off the original effect of the stimulus or reduces its intensity.