film developer should be what color and at what temperature?
film stop should be what color?
light yellow; not murky or brown
how should you check the quality of the fix?
check with hypocheck
what are the steps of film developing?
1) developer- 10 mins w/ 30sec agitation
2) stop bath 2 mins w/ constant agitation
3) fix 10 minutes w/ 30sec agitation
4) hypoclear if available
5) was 10 minutes (5 w/ hypoclear)
6) 30sec photo-flo
7) wipe with fingers
what is the enlarging process?
1) choose neg and place in carrier
2) focus to correct size and focus w/ grain focus
3) turn off light, stop lens down
4) set timer for about 4 seconds
5) put paper in easel and make test strip
6) enlarge according to test strip
name the three types of metering
exposure/ incident/ reflected
what is exposure metering?
determining the combination of f-stop and shutter speeds used based on the amount of light at a scene
what is incident metering?
measures the light that hits the scene, instead of the light reflected from the scene
what is reflected metering?
measures the amount of light that is reflected from the subject
what do you do with low key challenges?
take reading and add 2 stops of light (smaller number, bigger hole) or go longer shutter speed
what do you do with high key challenges?
take reading and subtract 2 stops (bigger number, smaller hole) or shorter shutter speed
when does darkroom developer go bad?
when its brown/cloudy
when does darkroom stop go bad?
when its brown/purple
when does fix go bad?
when its white and cloudy
what are the darkroom chemical times?
made first successful permanent photograph using a camera obsucra
works for themselves; sees their own photography
light sensitive coating on film or paper; insolable colloid
rule of thirds
tic-tac-toe board where subject goes in an intersection but never directly in the center; based off of golden ratio
is a mild acid that stops further development of the film by neutralizing alkaline developers
neutralizes hypo so it becomes more water soluble and washes out completely; eliminates fixer
dessolves all unexposed and undeveloped silver salts in the film
the combination of distinct and individual features
refers to how the compositions of objects in a photo create movement without actual lines
range of values, from light to dark, of the colors or shades of gray in an image
weighting the subject
placing your main subject off-center but "weighing" the opposite side as well (slightly less however)
moves and arranged more wildly; opposite of static; dimensional in a way
arrangement of distinct elements to form a unified whole; arrangements of elements and principles
foreground vs background
dark, hazy deposit on all or part of film or paper
problematic shape relationship; conflicting positive/ negative space
how some object is located in space in relation to another
element of art that refers to the light/dark tones of colors or to the neutral tones in an image
procedure that eliminates part of an image/ print to improve composition
to spoiling of chemicals due to use, time and atmospheric exposure
adjustment of the distance setting on a lens to define the subject sharply
aall elements and parts of the visual image relate to and complement each other in a composition
controls the amount of light that passes through the lens by changing the diameter of the lens aperture (hole)
controls the amount of time that light is allowed to hit the film/image chip
what is the B-setting on shutter speed?
B setting originally stood for flash; shutter opens as long as button is held down and closes when released
ring on the lens body which moves the lens elements inside the lens; used to focus
"exposure meter"; has light sensitive cells that masers the light used to set exposure settings
indicates how sensitive the film is to light
B= exposing paper to more light in lighter areas
D= exposing paper to less light in darker areas
variable contrast paper
used in color photography; paper that permits the selection of a wide range of contrasting levels of color (mixture of 3 emulations)
projects an image onto paper by shining light through negative; there is a lens and flexible bellows used for focusing
also called proof sheet; created by holding, strips of negatives in contact with paper when exposed to light
small magnifying glass (adjustable-focus magnifier) used to view slides, negatives and etc. over a light box
darkroom accessory used to hold printing paper flat and in place under the enlarger
the individual silver particles that make up an image of a developed and fixed photo
hardened colored wax used to make marks on glossy photopaper
portion of a paper exposed in intervals to show values and reveal what time/f-stop and filter is appropriate
plastic sheet in which negatives are kept
shooting a series of shots of the same scene at different levels of exposure/ f-stop; from light to dark
depth of field
refers to how much of the scene is in focus; both in front and behind the subject or point of focus; distance between nearest and farthest points of focus
photographers employed under contract; less freedom, more stability
what year was the first photograph made?
name the 8 principles of design:
balance, contrast, unity, harmony, rhythm/ movement. emphasis, proportion, pattern
name the 6 elements of art:
value, line, shape, form, color, texture
what are the four types of blur?
camera motion blur, subject motion blur, out of focus blur, depth-of-feild blur
what are the three components of exposure?
f/stop, shutter speed, film speed (iso; film sensitivity)
what are the three types of portraits?
formal (simple, emphasis on person), candid (everyday life) and environmental (surroundings + subject= story to tell)
what was the most used prop in the early 20th century?
1850-1940s; soft-focus lenses that reduced details and resembled drawings
circle of confusion
is an estimated calculation of the depth of field necessary to produce a clean image; area outside depth of field
A fixed focus lens has one set focal length with a specific field of view which cannot be changed
adjustable focal length; has a shorter focal length and a wider field of view than a telephoto lens
Lens designed to be readily attached to and detached from a camera
the distance between the film and the optical center of the lens when the lens is focused on infinity