US History Exam

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reconstruction act or 1867

divided the South into 5 regions that were then placed under martial law; union generals were placed in charge of these regions

wilmot proviso

proposed outlawing slavery in any territory that was gained by the Mexican war; it was not passed

Taft-Hartley act

limited the power of unions during the 1950's;gave the president the right to intervene and end a strike that threatened the national economy

fugitive slave act

required all American citizens to report runaway slaves and assist in returning them to their owners; created great resentment and protests in north

pendelton act

created the merit system to end the increasing corruption resulting from the spoils system; required all civil service employees to be hired on merit

agricultural adjustment admin.

provided assistance to farmers during the great depression by offering incentives to lower production

alien and sedition act

outlawed criticism of the president and tightened naturalization requirements; sparked Jefferson and Madison to write Virginia/Kentucky resolutions

Missouri compromise

outlawed slavery above the 36 30 line; provided for Maine to be admitted as a free state and Missouri to be admitted as a slave state

national recovery act

provided for regulations of prices, management/labor relations and production under the new deal; was declared unconstitutional by supreme court

war powers act

required the president to notify congress within 48 hours if American troops are deployed; was passed after the conflict in Vietnam

homestead act

granted 160 acres of land in the west in exchange for an agreement to cultivate the land for 5 years; encouraged the westward movement in 1800's

Kansas Nebraska act

called for the question of slavery to be settled by popular sovereignty in the remaining Louisiana territory

Chinese exclusion act

restricted immigration in the late 1800s in response to rising nativism and concern over
"new immigrants"

Sherman anti-trust act

attempted to break up the monopolies that dominated the American economy in the late 1800s; was later strengthened by the Clayton act.

Indian removal act of 1830

provided for the relocation of many native Americans to the west; led to the trail of tears

compromise of 1850

agreement to allow California to enter the union as a free state; strengthen the fugitive slave law and outlaw the slave trade in dc

lend-lease act

allowed the US to assist Great Britain in WWII despite our official neutrality; we provided weapons and economic aid until we entered the war

meant inspection act

created new regulations in response to the accusations made public by Upton Sinclair's The Jungle

espionage and sedition acts

allowed for the imprisonment of war protesters during WWI; was upheld by the supreme court in Schenck V. US

social security act

created a national pension system during the New Deal era; the system is still in effect but in danger of bankruptcy

national labor relations act

strengthened the power of unions by requiring management to bargain in "good faith" and recognizing a right to strike

Marbury v. Madison

established judicial review

Dred Scott V. Sanford

declared slaves were property, not citizens, and that the federal government couldn't strip citizens of their property

Miranda V. Arizona

declared that all criminal defendants must be informed of their rights before being interrogated

Gideon V. Wainwright

declared that criminal defendants facing jail are entitled to an attorney provided by the state

Plessy V. Ferguson

declared that "separate but equal" facilities are constitutional; ruled that a black man could be kept out of a "white" train car

Gibbons V. Ogden

asserted the right of the federal government to regulate interstate trade; involved a dispute over steamboat trade on the Hudson River

McCullough V. Maryland

decided the national bank was constitutional and that states could not tax is; "the power to tax is the power to destroy"

Korematsu V. US

decided that the federal government could place Japanese-Americans in internement camps when "national security" necessitates is

Brown V. Board of Education

required the integration of public schools; overturned Plessy V. Ferguson

Schenck V. US

decided that the First Amendment rights to free speech could be limited in a time of war

US V. Nixon

ordered Nixon to turn over the presidential tapes; rejected the idea of executive privilege

Schecter V. US

ruled the National Recovery Act was unconstitutional; promted by FDR to propoes his "Court Packing" plan

Baker V. Carr

ruled that congressional districts must be drawn based on population, not geographical area; required "one person, one vote"

yellow journalism

the use of exaggerated reporting by newspapers or magazines to attract readers

USS Maine

Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War

De Lome letter

Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.

Domino Theory

the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control

Geneva Accords

a 1954 peace agreement that divided Vietnam into Communist-controlled North Vietnam and non-Communist South Vietnam until unification elections could be held in 1956

Tonkin Gulf Incident

US destroyer Maddox was attacked by North Vietnam forces and led to the US escalation of Us military involvement

Tonkin Gulf Resolution

This gave the president authority to take "all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States."

Manifest Destiny

a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)

Zimmerman Note

1917 - Germany sent this to Mexico instructing an ambassador to convince Mexico to go to war with the U.S. It was intercepted and caused the U.S. to mobilized against Germany, which had proven it was hostile

Lusitania

British passenger boat sunk by a German submarine that claimed 1,000 lives. One of main reasons Amereica decided to join the war.

Pearl Harbor

United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.

VE day

May 8, 1945; victory in Europe Day when the Germans surrendered

VJ day

"Victory over Japan day" is the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945

Nuremburg Trials

Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes

Yalta Conference

FDR Churchill and Stalin meet, decided for nuremburg trials, decide to divide germany into four zones, askes USSR to have elections in eastern europe

Potsdam Conference

Truman British and Stalin meet, warning sent to japan on ending war, stalin decides no elections

Atlantic conference

Churchill and FDR, Atlantic charter- freedom of seas economic security, united nations idea

Teheran Conference

FDR Churchill and Stalin, us opens two front war with russia, russia requests for help in europe and russia will help with japan

San Francisco Conference

set up charter for the United nations- security counsel with permanent members (russia, britian, france, US, china) and a general assembly

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