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Chapters 7, 12 definations

direct taxes

taxes on income, capital gains or wealth, et cetera... that tend to be progressive

distribution

the activity of transporting and selling goods to a store or a consumer

extraction

the extraction of minerals from the ground, and also the taking of money from the people

GDP

Gross Domestic Product- the total market value of all final goods and services produced annually in an economy

indirect taxes

Taxes that increase a business firm's costs of production and, therefore, the prices charged to consumers. Examples are sales, excise, and property taxes.

night watchman state

where the government's responsibilities are so minimal they cannot be reduced much further without becoming a form of anarchy. The government's responsibilities are limited to protecting individuals from coercion, fraud and theft, to requiring reparation to victims

opportunity costs

cost of the next best alternative use of money, time, or resources when one choice is made rather than another

OECD

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, An International organization that helps different governments to collaborate in order to tackled economic, social and governance challenges of the globalized economy

outcomes

in equity theory, the rewards employees receive for their contributions to the organization

police state

a country in which the government has total control over people and uses secret police to find and punish people who rebel or protest

policy goods

political goods that pertain to welfare, security, fairness, and liberty

political goods and values

a) criteria that sets standards on whether a certain outcome is good or bad b) individual differences in values or goals will affect how people evaluate political outcomes; politicians and citizens often disagree over these

process goods

a) participation, compliance & procedural justice; also includes effectiveness & efficiency b) examples are democratic procedures and various rights of due process

public policies

all of the many goals that a government pursues in all of the many areas of human affairs in which it is involved

regulation

The use of governmental authority to control or change some practice in the private sector. Regulations pervade the daily lives of people and institutions.

regulatory state

a) evolved in all advanced modern societies in response to the growing complexity of modern life, along with welfare state b) the government's control over its nation's economy, etc. for the welfare of its citizens

symbolic outputs

political speeches, holidays, rites, public monuments, and statues.
-used to build community and celebrate exemplary conduct

system goods

political goods that pertain to a stable and transparent environment and allow for maintenance and adaption

trade off

alternatives that must be given up when one is chosen over another

welfare state

a government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health and public housing and pensions and unemployment compensation etc.

technocratic

a) a form of government where engineers, scientists and other technical experts are in charge of decision making in each of their fields b) suppresses participation and promotes economic growth; ex. Syria, Egypt

Assembly of experts

this organization is a manifestation of the hold that Islam has on Iran. It is chaired by clerics with the equivalent of a masters degree in religion; A.R.E. reserves the right to dismiss a leader if he is incapable of filling his duties which are implied to be religious in context

basij

a paramilitary volunteer militia established in 1979 by order of the Islamic Revolution's leader Khomeini; consists of young Iranians who've volunteered, often in exchange for official benefits

council of guardians

the upper chamber within the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Twelve individuals who serve six-year terms: six lawyers, nominated by the chief justice and approved by the Majlis, and six clerics appointed by the supreme leader. The Council can review all Majlis legislation.

Shirin Ebadi

first Iranian and first Muslim woman to win Nobel Peace Prize. This was for her years of legal work advocating political activists, religious, ethnic minorities women and children.

expediency council

administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader. It's supposed to resolve conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians. It's also a consultative council to the Supreme Leader

Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

President of Iran from 1989 to 1997; now he is Chairman of various councils, and tried in vain to gain a third Presidential term in 2005. Centrist, pragmatic conservative, free market; credited with much of Iran's reconstruction after the Iran-Iraq war.

Islamists

people that thought they could restore Islam to its former golden age (they saw the U.S. power over them as an extension of the cruelty of Christians during the Crusades)

Ali Khamenei

A midlevel cleric who was given the title of supreme leader after Khomeini's death. He lacks the charisma and religious authority that Khomeini had

Mohammed Khatami

Reformer who served as the fifth President of Iran from August 2, 1997 to August 3, 2005. Recently withdrew as candidate for upcoming presidential election.

Ruhollah Khomeini

"Ayatollah" was an Iranian religious leader and scholar, politician, and leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the late Shah of Iran. Following the revolution and a national referendum, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader—a position created in the constitution as the highest ranking political and religious authority of the nation, until his death.

Leader

Person or thing that holds a dominant or superior position within its field, and is able to exercise a high degree of control or influence over others.

Majles

Iran's unicameral parliament, consisting of 290 elected representatives

Mohammed Mossadegh

Nationalist prime minister of Iran who wished to nationalize the oil in Iran. Because of western cooperation pressure the CIA joined forces with conservative Iranian military leaders to engineer a coup that drove this man from office. They replaced him with Mohammed Reze Pahlevi, the young Shah of Iran. He acted as a pawn for the United States for the next 25 years.

multiple power centers

revolutionary-created institutions that overlap with, or supplement, traditional state institutions

Mohammed-Reza Shah Pahlavi

Iran's ruler that favored the West. close ties with the US. Used oil 4 to build wealth. redistributed land to peasants. Gave women more rights. gave Iran's oil industry to Western control.

parastatal foundations

a government-owned corporation to compensate for the lack of private economic development or to ensure complete and equitable service to the whole country (can be anything from a national airline or a railroad to a postal system or manufacturing and marketing operations)

Pasdaran (Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps)

Persian term for guards, used to refer to the army of Revolutionary Guards formed during Iran's Islamic Revolution.

rentier states

- 50% of governmental budget comes from non state revenues (such as oil)
- Mineral abundant countries more prone to authoritarian regimes, economic/political problems, corruption and income inequality.

shari'a

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

Sunnis

Muslims belonging to branch of Islam believing that the community should select its own leadership. The majority religion in most Islamic countries. (See also Shi'ites.) (p. 225)

theocracy

government run by religious leaders

twelver shiism

a belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion

tudeh party

an Iranian communist party. Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddeq's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company and his term as prime minister. Its influence waned in the crackdown that followed the 1953 coup against Mosaddeq The party still exists, but is much weaker as a result of the banning of the party and mass arrests by the Islamic Republic in 1982 and the executions of political prisoners in 1988.

elema

Triadic exchanges "do it like that". caregiver tells the child what to say and child repeats it to someone else.

velayat-e faqih

Belief that the state should be overseen by those familiar with Islamic theory and law- ie the upper Shia elite

ayatollah

a high-ranking Shiite religious leader who is regarded as an authority on religious law and its interpretation and who has political power as well

imam

(Islam) the man who leads prayers in a mosque

jihad

a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

quran

Book composed of divine revelations made to the Prophet Muhammad between ca. 610 and his death in 632; the sacred text of the religion of Islam.

shah

title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran

supreme leader

The country's most powerful political figure, who has the authority to overrule or dismiss the president, appoints members of the Guardian Council, and has personal representatives in the army, universities, etc.

supreme national security council

Organization responsible for Iran's intelligence, military, security and strategic policies

mahmud ahmadi-nejad

President of Iran

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