Tried to find alternate sea routes to Asia, sailed around Cape of Good Hope and entered the Indian Ocean
Servants who were depended on by the Ming dynasty because they were unable to amass wealth, thus depended on the dynasty to thrive; helped centralization
Technology that was spread by Mongols through warfare with other states; developed by Chinese
Founder of the Ming dynasty; values old Chinese traditions, scorned the Mongols, set up tightly centralized government
Muslim traveler of most of the dar Al-Islam and helped set up and enforce Islamic law/rule/doctrines to newly Islamic states
Isabel of Castile and Fernando of Aragon
"Catholic Kings," together united the Iberian peninsula and amassed much power; emphasized Christianity
Mongol khan of the Yuan dynasty in China; overthrown by gross inflation b/c of paper money and peasant rebellions and factions within government. Marco Polo visited and treated well by him.
special class of officials that ensured local compliance with imperial policies sent out by the central government.
traveled and traded throughout Mongol lands, wrote influential book that influenced Europeans to participate in the trade networks
Major trading city that was successful because it had a strategic position, maintained good order, and resisted temptation to have excessive customs fees; principal clearinghouse of trade in eastern Indian Ocean
"Father of Humanism." studied classical Greek and Latin. introduced emotion in "Sonnets to Laura;" Italian
Prince Henry the Navigator
demonstrated mixed motives for explorations; double blow against Islam and allowing Christian vessels to travel freely; Portugese
The Reconquering of Spain from the Muslims in 1492 by Ferdinand and Isabella. This unified Spain into a powerful nation-state.
"rebirth," period of time from the 14th to the 16th centuries that marked a cultural flowering in Europe.
Spread Islamic values through missionary activities; more flexible towards Islam thus spread Islamic values without resistence
Cultivated by Muslims, spread to Italians, created new product, boosted economic growth; SUGAR!
Compiled an encyclopedia that included all significant works of Chinese history, philosophy, and literature; showed Ming support of native Chinese cultural traditions.