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Phrenology highlighted the potential importance of

specific brain regions

Dr. Weber does research on the potential relationship between sex hormones and emotional behavior. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Weber's research best represent

Biological psychology

Dendrites are branching extensions of

neurons

The function of dendrites is to

Receive incoming information from other neurons

The long part of the neuron is the

dendrite

In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal within a single neuron travels from the

dendrites to the cell body to the axon

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by

myelin sheath

Neural impulses may travel as rapidly as

200 miles per hour

A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron

action potential

the depolarization of a neural membrane creates a

action potential

With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which

Positively charged atoms are pumped back outside the neural membrane

The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the

threshold

increasing the intensity of a stimulus above the threshold will similarly increase the intensity of a neural response to that stimulus. this highlights the nature of the

all or none response

a synapse is

a junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron

The body's speedy electrochemical information system is called the

nervous system

nerves are neural cables containing many

axons

when Jim was stung by a bee, the pain message was transmitted to his spinal cord by the

peripheral nervous system

In order for you to be able to run, _____ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles

motor neurons

Motor neurons are to the ___ nervous system as inter neurons are to the _____ nervous system

Peripheral; Central

The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the movement of your legs when you walk

somatic nervous system

The parasympathetic nervous system is a division of the _____ nervous system

autonomic

When Mr. Valdez thought his 1 year old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heart beat accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal was activated by his_____ nervous system

Sympathetic

The neurons of the central nervous system cluster into functional systems known as

neural networks

a brain lesion refers to ____ of brain tissue

destruction

X- Ray photographs of the brain are necessary to produce a

CT Scan

The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the special usefulness of an

PET scan

Which technique involves the use of magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of the brain's soft tissue

MRI

Your life would be most threatened if you suffered the destruction of the

medulla

Which nerve network in the brain stem plays an important role in controlling arousal

reticular formation

The thalamus serves as a

sensory switchboard

A loss of physical coordination and balance is most likely to result from damage to the

cerebellum

The amygdala and hypothalamus are part of the

limbic system

Wilhelm Wundt used the research method known as

Introspection

In a study of human visual experience, research participants are asked to carefully monitor and describe their own immediate and ongoing visual sensations. The participants are employing a research technique known as

Introspection

In order to evaluate various theories of human behavior, contemporary psychologists rely most heavily on the process of

Scientific observation

Angie wonders whether her calm and relaxed personality style was learned or inherited. Angie's concern is most directly relevant to the issue of

Nature Vs. Nurture

Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory

Neuroscience

mark believes that people's dislike of bitter- Tasting foods is an inherited trait because it has enhanced human survival. His belief best illustrates the ___ perspective

Evolutionary

Which perspective is most directly concerned with understanding the relative impact of heredity and experience on personality development

behavior genetics

A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a ____ perspective

Psycho dynamic

The study of human problem- solving strategies is most likely to be a central focus of the ____ perspective

cognitive

Dr. Kozak has concluded that the unusually low incidence of alcoholism among citizens of a small African country can be attributed to strong fundamentalistic religious influences in that region. This belief best illustrates a ___ perspective

Social- cultural

Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?

Industrial/Organizational psychology

Working in a community heath center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. Thatcher is most likely a ____ psychologist

Clinical

Whether informed that research has supported the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self- esteem or informed that the esteem- enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research, most people would consider the findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of

The hindsight bias

When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves. This best illustrates

Overconfidence

Those who approach the study of psychology with an attitude of curious skepticism are especially likely to

question the validity of research findings

Hypotheses are best described as

Predictions

Operational definitions are most likely to facilitate

Replication

In order to gain further understanding of how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observed and questioned two stroke victims. Which research method did Dr. Mosher employ?

The case study

Which of the following techniques would be the most effective way of investigating the relationship between the political preferences and the economic status of North Americans

The survey

Which procedure helps to ensure that the participants in a survey are representative of a larger population

Random Sampling

naturalistic observation is most useful for

Describing behavior s

A statistical measure that indicates how well one factor predicts a second factor is called a

Correlation Coefficient

A scatter plot graphically depicts the

Degree of relationship between two variable

If those with low self esteem are also particularly likely to suffer from depression, this would not necessarily indicated that low self esteem triggers negative emotions because

Correlation does not prove causation

in order to test the potential effect of hunger on taste sensitivity groups of research participants are deprived of food for differing lengths of time before they engage in a taste- sensitivity test. This research is an example of

An experiment

The double blind procedure is most likely to be utilized in....Research

experimental

Research participants consumed either caffeinated or decaffeinated beverages in a study of the effects of caffeine on anxiety levels. those who received the decaffeinated drinks were exposed to the _____ condition

Control

In order to minimize any preexisting differences between participants who are in different conditions of an experiment, psychologists make use of

random assignment

Random sampling is to ____ as random assignment is to ______

Surveys; Experiments

In a psychological experiment, researches are interested in studying the potential effects of the ____ variable

independent

During the past month, Henri and Sylvia each ate 10 candy bars, while Jerry ate 8, Tricia ate 6, and Tahli ate only 1. The mean number of candy bars eaten by these individuals was

7

Which part of a neuron is often encased by a myelin sheath

axon

The myelin sheath helps to increase the _____ of neural impulses

Speed

The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron produces

Action potential

A neural impulse is generated only when excitatory minus inhibitory signals exceed a certain

Threshold

The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the

Axon

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the

Synaptic Gap

After 3 hours of playing a physically exhausting professional tennis match, Chitra began to experience a sense of physical exhilaration and pleasure. It is likely that her feelings were most directly linked to the release of

Endorphins

Agonists mimic the activity of

neurotransmitters

Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via

inter neurons

Motor neurons are to the ___ nervous system as inter neurons are to the ___ nervous system

Peripheral; Central

The parasympathetic nervous system is a division of the ____ nervous system

Autonomic

The thalamus serves as a

Sensory switchboard

A loss of physical coordination and balance is most likely to result from damage to the

cerebellum

which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as rage and fear

amygdala

Which component of the limbic system plays an essential role in the formation of new memories

Hippocampus

Attribution theory was designed to account for

How people explain other's behaviors

Alicia insists that her boyfriend's car accident resulted from his carelessness. Her explanation for the accident provides an example of

A dis positional attribution

Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their ___ or to their ____

Dispositions; Situations

We have a tendency to explain the behavior of others in terms of _____ and to explain our own behavior in terms of _____

Personality traits; situational constraints

Attitudes are ___ that guide behavior

beliefs and feelings

Politicians who publicly oppose a tax increase that they privately favor best illustrate that:

Actions may sometimes be inconsistent with attitudes

Vanna is tempted to shoplift a gold necklace even though she has negative feelings about shoplifting. Vanna is least likely to steal the merchandise if....

She is highly aware of her negative feelings about shoplifting

The foot in the door phenomenon refers to the tendency to

comply with a large request if one has previously complied with a small request

Phillip Zimbardo devised a stimulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners and guards. This experiment best illustrates the impact of

Role playing on attitudes

Which theory best explains why our actions can lead us to modify out attitudes

cognitive dissonance theory

we are most likely to experience cognitive dissonance if we feel ____ sense of responsibility for engaging in behaviors of which we personally ____

a great; disapprove

Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines

even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect

Ben hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his families disapproval. Ben's behavior exemplifies the importance of

normative social influence

Accepting other's opinions about reality is to ___ as the desire to gain approval is to ____

informative social influence; normative social influence

In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" were most likely to deliver high levels of the shock if

the experiment was conducted at a prestigious institute

Most people are likely to be surprised by the results of Milgram's initial obedience experiment because

the "teachers" were more obedient than most people would have predicted

Social facilitation refers to the tendency to

perform well learned tasks more effectively in the presence of others

The tendency for people to exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal is known as

social loafing

Professor Evans believes that severe depression results primarily from an imbalanced diet and abnormal blood chemistry. Professor Evans favors a ____ perspective on depression

Neuroscience

Professor Crisman believes that most women prefer tall and physically strong partners because this preference enhanced the reproductive success of our female ancestors. This view point best illustrates the _____ perspective

Evolutionary

Mrs. Thompson believes that her son has learned to play the piano because she consistently rewards his efforts to learn with praise and affection. Her belief is best illustrated by the ____ perspective

Behavioral

Dr. Robinson conducts basic research on the relationship between brain chemistry and intellectual functioning. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Robinson's research best represent

biological psychology

Dr. Mills engages in basic research on why individuals conform to the behaviors and opinions of others. Which specialty area does his research best represent

social psychology

Giving half the members of a group some purported psychological finding and the other half an opposite result is an easy way to demonstrate the impact of

The hindsight bias

Government experts who are convinced of the correctness of their own mistaken political predictions most clearly demonstrate

overconfidence

A hypothesis is an

testable prediction that gives direction to research

surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "government welfare" than "government aid to the needy" these somewhat paradoxial survey results best illustrate the importance of

wording effects

Jeff mistakenly assumes that everybody around him enjoys listening to country music just as much as he does. Jeff illustrates

the false consensus effect

In order to learn about the TV viewing habits of all the children attending Oakbridge School, Professor Devries randomly selected and interviews about 50 of the school's students. in this instance all the children attending the school are considered the

population

In order to assess reactions to a proposed tuition hike at her college, Susan sent a questionnaire to every fifteenth person in the college registrar's alphabetical listing of all the currently enrolled students. Susan employed the technique of

random sampling

If those who watch a lot of TV violence are also particularly likely to behave aggressively, this would NOT necessarily that watching TV violence influence aggressive behavior because

correlation does not prove causation

Illusory correlation refers to

the perception of a relationship between two variables that does NOT actually exist

In which type of research would an investigator manipulate one factor in order to observe its effects on some behavior or mental process

experimentation

being randomly assigned to the experimental condition in a research project involves being assigned

to that condition by chance

In a psychological experiment, the factor that is manipulated by the investigator is called the ____ variable

independent

The mean of a distribution of scores is the

arithmetic average of all scores

The cells that serve as the basic building blocks of the body's information processing

neurons

the branching extensions of nerve cells that receive incoming signals from sensory receptors or from other neurons are called

dendrites

Which part of the neuron is often encased by a myelin sheath

axon

the movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron produces a

action potential

an all or none response pattern is characteristic of the

initiation of neural impulses

information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via

interneurons

motor neurons are to ____ nervous system as interneurons are to the ____ nervous system

Peripheral; central

The thalamus serves as a

sensory switchboard

Which regions of the cerebral cortex lie at the back of the head and receive visual information

occipital

direct stimulation of a part of the motor cortex would most likely result in

movement of a hand

the sensory cortex is located in the ___ lobes

parietal

The cortical regions that are not primarily concerned with sensory or motor functions are known as

association areas

the use of free association is central to the process of

psychoanalysis

according to Freud, the unconscious is

the thoughts, wishes feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the

ID

Ego is to ID as ___ is to __-

Reality principle; pleasure principle

According to Freud the personality system that represents out sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the

superego

according to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of

psychosexual development

The defense mechanism by which people disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called

projection

which neo Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development

Jung

Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called

traits

Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic

personality traits

Victor explains that his brother's aggressive behavior results from his brother's insecurities. Victor's explanation of his brother's behavior is an example of

an attribution

The tendency for observers to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions upon another's behavior is called

the fundamental attribution error

beliefs and feelings that predispose us to respond in particular ways to objects, people, and events are called

attitudes

the tendency for initial compliance with a small request to facilitate subsequent compliance with a larger request is known as

foot in the door phenomenon

studies of role playing most directly highlight the effects of

actions on attitudes

which theory assumes that we adopt certain attitudes in order to justify our past actions

Cognitive dissonance theory

Solomon Asch asked people to identify which of three comparison lines were identical to a standard line. His research was designed to study

conformity

Conformity resulting from the acceptance of other's opinions about reality is said to be a response to

informational social influence

Social loafing refers to the tendency for people to

exert less effort when they are pooling their efforts toward a common goal

individuals who are normally law abiding may vandalize and loot when they become part of a mob. this change in behavior is best understood in terms of

deindividuation

Group polarization refers to

the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion

an overwhelming desire for harmony in a decision making group increases the probability of

group think

because he mistakenly expects substandard work from his minority employees, Mr. Johnson treats them in a patronizing manner that causes them to become demoralized and unproductive. this best illustrates the importance of

self fulfilling prophecies

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