APUSH - Chapter 21 - Harris - MC

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AP American History - Chapter 21

d) Quick military action to show the folly of secession

At the beginning of the Civil War, Pres. Abraham Lincoln favored
a) Postpone the military actions as long as possible
b) Making the Civil War about ending slavery
c.) Long-term enlistments for Union soldiers
d) Quick military actions to show the folly of secession
e) Seizing control of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

a) Lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond

Lincoln hoped that a Union victory at Bull Run would
a) lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond.
b) bring an end to slavery.
c) destroy the economy of the South.
d) pull the Border states out of the Confederacy.
e) All of these

e) A. D, B, C.

Arrange the following in chronological order: (A) the Battle of Bull Run, (B) the Battle of Gettysburg, (C) Lee's surrender at Appomattox, and (D) the Battle of Antietam.
a) B, C, A, D
b) D, B, C, A
c) C, A, D, B
d) A, B, D, C
e) A, D, B, C

a) reduced enlistments in the South's army

The South's victory at Bull Run in 1861
a) reduced enlistments in the South's army.
b) reduced the number of Confederate deserters.
c) demonstrated how difficult Confederate independence would be.
d) convinced the South of the need to prepare for a protracted conflict.
e) forced Lincoln to flee Washington.

b) Bull Run

At the beginning of the Civil War, in 1861, the South won the battle of
a) Vicksburg.
b) Bull Run.
c) Gettysburg.
d) Atlanta.
e) Lookout Mountain.

b) the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.

The Union's defeat in battle at Bull Run in 1861 was better than a victory because
a) Ulysses S. Grant took command of the army immediately after the setback.
b) the defeat caused Northerners to face up to the reality of a long, difficult war.
c) "Stonewall" Jackson was killed.
d) it caused Lincoln to declare a war against slavery.
e) it allowed European powers the chance to intervene on behalf of the South.

c) overly cautious.

George B. McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, is best described as
a) disliked by his own men.
b) aggressive.
c) overly cautious.
d) poorly prepared for military leadership.
e) poorly organized.

e) consistently believing that the enemy outnumbered him.

After assuming command of the Army of the Potomac, General George McClellan made the mistake of
a) taking too many risks.
b) relying on Lincoln's military judgment.
c) being unconcerned about the morale of his troops.
d) not drilling his troops enough to prepare them for battle.
e) consistently believing that the enemy outnumbered him.

c) Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.

As a result of the Union loss in the Peninsula Campaign
a) Lincoln named George McClellan commander of the Union forces.
b) the North decided to fight a war of containment.
c) Lincoln began to draft the Emancipation Proclamation.
d) Lincoln decided that the key to the war was controlling the Mississippi River.
e) the Union commanders were left without an overall military strategy.

e) striking deep into the Confederacy via the Appalachian Mountain chain.

After the Peninsula Campaign, Union strategy included all of the following except
a) cutting the Confederacy in half by seizing the Mississippi River.
b) marching through Georgia and then the Carolinas.
c) blockading the Confederacy's coastline.
d) liberating the slaves to undermine the southern economy.
e) striking deep into the Confederacy via the Appalachian Mountain chain.

d) the Union turned to a strategy of total war.

As a result of the Confederate victory in the Peninsula Campaign
a) Robert E. Lee was named to command the entire Southern army.
b) Lincoln named Ulysses S. Grant as commander of the Union forces.
c) Lincoln delayed his issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation.
d) the Union turned to a strategy of total war.
e) Lincoln abandoned the war in the West.

a) guerrilla warfare.

The final Union war strategy included all the following components except
a) guerrilla warfare.
b) a naval blockade.
c) undermining the Confederate economy.
d) seizing control of the Mississippi River.
e) capturing Richmond.

a) Britain might want to use a similar blockade in a future war.

Britain did not protest too loudly against the Union naval blockade of the Confederacy because
a) Britain might want to use a similar blockade in a future war.
b) the British government clearly supported the Union.
c) it would have been useless to try to run the blockade.
d) profits were not high enough to justify the risk.
e) the blockade did not cut off cotton shipments.

e) the ironclad Merrimack (renamed the Virginia).

The most serious Confederate threat to the Union blockade came from
a) British navy vessels on loan to the South.
b) swift blockade-running steamers.
c) the threat of mutiny from pro-southern sailors.
d) the Confederate cruiser Alabama.
e) the ironclad Merrimack (renamed the Virginia).

c) destroyed by Confederate soldiers to keep it out of the hands of Union troops.

The Confederate blockade runner, the Merrimack, was
a) destroyed by Union troops to prevent its use as a slave ship.
b) captured and used by Union troops to help restore the Federal blockade.
c) destroyed by Confederate soldiers to keep it out of the hands of Union troops.
d) able to escape to British ports.
e) used to ferry both British and French troops across the ocean.

c) invade the Union via Maryland.

After defeating McClellan at the Second Battle of Bull Run, Robert E. Lee decided to
a) consolidate his forces to protect the Confederate capital.
b) send Jeb Stuart's calvary to raid northern lines.
c) invade the Union via Maryland.
d) call for a ceasefire and peace negotiations.
e) shift some of his troops to the Tennessee and Kentucky fronts.

e) inspire the Border States to rise up and join the Confederacy.

In invading Maryland, one of Lee's key objectives was to
a) show northerners how polished and well-equiped the Confederate army was.
b) capture or destroy Union arsenals and railroad lines.
c) destroy McClellan's army.
d) capture Lincoln and his Cabinet.
e) inspire the Border States to rise up and join the Confederacy.

b) France and Britain were on the verge of recognizing the Confederate government.

A victory at Antietam probably would have won Confederate independence because
a) the Union armies were already heavily demoralized.
b) France and Britain were on the verge of recognizing the Confederate government.
c) the Republicans would have lost the subsequent congressional elections.
d) Lincoln would have been unable to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
e) the Border States would have joined the Confederacy.

e) was removed from his field command.

After halting Lee's troops at Antietam, General George McClellan
a) retired from the military.
b) moved to confront Lee again at Gettysburg.
c) was appointed to command the main Western army.
d) marched his army toward Atlanta.
e) was removed from his field command.

b) the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans.

One of the key developments enabling the Union to stop the Confederate thrust into the North at Antietam was
a) Europe's refusal to help the South before the battle.
b) the Union's discovery of Robert E. Lee's battle plans.
c) Lincoln's removal of General McClellan from his command.
d) the use of the new repeating rifle for the first time.
e) the death of Stonewall Jackson during the battle.

c) Gettysburg and Antietam.

The two major battles of the Civil War fought on Union soil were
a) Shiloh and Chancellorsville.
b) Bull Run and Vicksburg.
c) Gettysburg and Antietam.
d) Peninsula Campaign and Fredericksburg.
e) Mobile and Missionary Ridge.

e) probably prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of the Confederacy.

The Battle of Antietam was particularly critical because it
a) inflated an already dangerous overconfidence among Southerners.
b) ended Lee's plan of invading the North.
c) delayed Lincoln's plan to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
d) ensured the reelection of President Lincoln.
e) probably prevented intervention by Britain and France on behalf of the Confederacy.

a) issue the Emancipation Proclamation.

The North's victory at Antietam allowed President Lincoln to
a) issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
b) seek military assistance from Great Britain.
c) force the Border States to remain in the Union.
d) keep General McClellan as commander of the Union forces.
e) suppress Copperhead opposition in the North.

e) Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Slavery was legally abolished in the United States by the
a) Union victory over the Confederates at Gettysburg.
b) surrender terms of Robert E. Lee to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox.
c) Emancipation Proclamation.
d) statutes of the individual states.
e) Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

b) strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union.

The Emancipation Proclamation had the effect of
a) reducing desertions from the Union army.
b) strengthening the moral cause and diplomatic position of the Union.
c) increasing popular support for the Republicans in the 1864 election.
d) quieting public opposition to Lincoln's war policies.
e) weakening Confederate morale.

d) states still in rebellion against the United States.

When it was issued in 1863, the Emancipation Proclamation declared free only those slaves in
a) the Border States.
b) slave states that remained loyal to the Union.
c) United States territories.
d) states still in rebellion against the United States.
e) areas controlled by the Union army.

d) growing upper-class European support for the Union.

All of the following occurred as a result of the Emancipation Proclamation except
a) mounting opposition in the North to an "abolition war."
b) sharp increases in Union desertions.
c) heavy congressional defeats for Lincoln's administration.
d) growing upper-class European support for the Union.
e) complaints from abolitionists that it did not go far enough.

a) blacks were enlisted by the Union army only after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued.

During the Civil War
a) blacks were enlisted by the Union army only after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued.
b) Southern armies found no way of utilizing slave labor.
c) thousands of slaves rose in armed rebellion behind Southern lines.
d) about one out of every four Union troops was black.
e) captured black soldiers were treated well by Confederates.

d) accounted for less than 1 percent of total Union enlistments.

African Americans who fought for the Union Army in the Civil War
a) carried out reprisals against captured slaveowners.
b) served mainly in military support units.
c) served bravely and suffered extremely heavy casualties.
d) accounted for less than 1 percent of total Union enlistments.
e) refused to serve under white officers.

a) a month before the war ended.

The Confederacy enlisted slaves into their army
a) a month before the war ended.
b) at the beginning of the war.
c) as a response to the Emancipation Proclamation.
d) to help in the attack on Gettysburg.
e) in recognition that the idea of slavery was wrong.

a) deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen the Northern peace movement.

Robert E. Lee decided to invade the North through Pennsylvania in order to
a) deliver a decisive blow that would strengthen the Northern peace movement.
b) force the Union to ease its blockade of the South.
c) cut Northern supply lines.
d) stir northern draft resisters to rise in revolt.
e) seize Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

e) Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.

The Battle of Gettysburg was significant because
a) Lee's army was effectively shattered.
b) it guaranteed Lincoln's re-election in 1864.
c) Philadelphia and New York were safe from attack.
d) Lee's military genius and right-hand man, Stonewall Jackson, was killed.
e) Union victory meant that the Southern cause was doomed.

e) it was the last major battle of the Civil War.

The Union victory at Vicksburg was of major importance for all of the following reasons except
a) it reopened the Mississippi River to Northern trade.
b) coupled with the victory at Gettysburg, foreign help for the Confederacy was irretrievably lost.
c) it helped to quell Northern peace agitation.
d) it cut off the supply of cattle and other goods from Texas and Louisiana.
e) it was the last major battle of the Civil War.

e) a pioneer of the strategy of total warfare aimed at destroying civilian morale.

As a theorist of warfare, General William T. Sherman was
a) a master of the quick, surprising attack.
b) careful to avoid "collateral damage" to civilian lives and property.
c) a believer in siege warfare.
d) insistent on maintaining strict military discipline among his troops.
e) a pioneer of the strategy of total warfare aimed at destroying civilian morale.

e) a shorter war that saved lives.

One consequence of General William T. Sherman's style of warfare was
a) a longer war.
b) the loss of more lives.
c) fewer desertions on the Confederate side.
d) southern resignation to defeat.
e) a shorter war that saved lives.

a) Northern Peace Democrats.

The group in the North most dangerous to the Union cause was the
a) Northern Peace Democrats.
b) Radical Republicans.
c) Northern War Democrats.
d) Union Party.
e) African Americans.

c) Copperhead.

Clement L. Vallandigham, a Southern sympathizer and vocal opponent of the war, was derisively labeled a
a) Carpetbagger.
b) Contraband.
c) Copperhead.
d) Doughface.
e) Prince of Jesters.

c) Union

In the election of 1864, the Republicans joined with the prowar Democrats and founded the _______________ party.
a) Federal
b) Liberty
c) Union
d) National
e) Progressive

e) Andrew Johnson.

In the 1864 election, Abraham Lincoln's running mate was
a) Salmon P. Chase.
b) Wendell Phillips.
c) William Tecumseh Sherman.
d) Stephen A. Douglas.
e) Andrew Johnson.

a) George McClellan

In the l864 election, the Democratic party nominated _______________ to oppose Lincoln's reelection.
a) George McClellan
b) Ulysses S. Grant
c) Andrew Johnson
d) Clement C. Vallandigham
e) Horace Greeley

e) Atlanta and Mobile

The Union army's success in the capture of _______________ was probably critical to Lincoln's reelection in 1864.
a) Gettysburg and Harrisburg
b) Richmond and Appomattox
c) Vicksburg and Port Hudson
d) Charleston and Columbia
e) Atlanta and Mobile

c) assailing the enemy's armies simultaneously and directly.

General Ulysses S. Grant's basic strategy in the Civil War involved
a) using long-range artillery assaults.
b) striking tactically from the flanks.
c) assailing the enemy's armies simultaneously and directly.
d) destroying the enemy's economy and undermining civilian morale.
e) surrounding enemy armies for a long siege.

a) 10, 5

During the Civil War, Grant lost one man for every ___ , and Lee lost one man for every ___.
a) 10, 5
b) 5, 10
c) 5, 20
d) 2, 10
e) 5, 2

a) was a calamity for the South.

The assassination of Abraham Lincoln
a) was a calamity for the South.
b) benefited the South.
c) had little effect on Reconstruction.
d) saved him from possible impeachment.
e) brought an abolitionist to the White House.

e) the Civil War.

The supreme test of American democracy in the nineteenth century was
a) the Revolution.
b) surviving the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.
c) helping Britain to pass the Reform Bill of 1867.
d) the War of 1812.
e) the Civil War.

e) democracy.

The Civil War was a major ideological victory for
a) racism.
b) individualism.
c) civil liberties.
d) states' rights.
e) democracy.

e) the end of protective tariffs and isolationism.

The Civil War resulted in all of the following except
a) expanded federal powers of taxation.
b) the end of nullification and secession.
c) the creation of the first federal social welfare agency.
d) the end of slavery.
e) the end of protective tariffs and isolationism.

a) Union military victories.
c) backing from Union soldiers.

Lincoln's victory in the election of 1864 was aided by
a) Union military victories.
b) Confederate efforts to help McClellan.
c) backing from Union soldiers.
d) solid support for the war in the Midwest.
e) his peace feelers to the Confederacy.

a) black slavery.
c) extreme states' rights.
e) over a million men dead or wounded.

Among the casualties of the Civil War were
a) black slavery.
b) presidential power.
c) extreme states' rights.
d) democratic ideals.
e) over a million men dead or wounded.

It forced the north to take the prowess of the Southern military seriously.

1. Why is the Battle of Bull Run important?
(a) It showed the might of the Union Army.
(b) It forced the north to take the prowess of the Southern military seriously.
(c) It gave the South an exaggerated sense of confidence.
(d) It was a draw.
(e) It hinted that the war would not be over quickly.

slowness to act.

2. Union General George McClellan is best remembered for his
(a) brilliant sense of timing in battle.
(b) unwillingness to risk the lives of his men.
(c) slowness to act.
(d) preference for attacking by water.
(e) lightning-fast attacks.

prolonged the war and began to attach slavery to the cause.

3. The outcome of the Peninsula Campaign to take Richmond in 1862 is significant because it
(a) was the first Southern victory.
(b) prolonged the war and began to attach slavery to the cause.
(c) was among the most violent conflicts of the war, taking 10,000 Union soldiers' lives and 20,000 Confederates.
(d) was MacLennan's shining moment.
(e) inspired Union leaders to shift their expectations from a short battle to a long and bloody war.

Grind the Confederacy to dust by sending troops through Maryland and Virginia

4. Which of the following was NOT part of Union military strategy against the South?
(a) Cause havoc by liberating the slaves
(b) Blockade Southern seacoasts
(c) Capture the Mississippi
(d) Seize Richmond
(e) Grind the Confederacy to dust by sending troops through Maryland and Virginia

it marked the advent of ironclad ships.

it marked the advent of ironclad ships.
5. The battle at Antietam is considered a decisive moment in the Civil War for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
(a) the display of Union military might kept France and England from attempting to intervene.
(b) McClellan's success was based on the discovery of Lee's battle plans.
(c) It gave Lincoln the confidence to write the Emancipation Proclamation.
(d) it marked the advent of ironclad ships.
(e) it changed the character and goals of the war.

was a symbolic statement of justice.

6. The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863
(a) freed all slaves throughout the United States.
(b) freed slaves in Confederate and border states.
(c) was a symbolic statement of justice.
(d) officially and formally ended slavery.
(e) was meant as an appeal to now former slaves to serve in the Union Army.

It established home guards to protect against insurrection and flight.

7. How did the South manage its slave population during the Civil War?
(a) It established home guards to protect against insurrection and flight.
(b) It enlisted slaves in the Army.
(c) It kept potentially unruly slaves in shackles or prisons for much of the war.
(d) It used them as spies against approaching Union troops.
(e) It offered slaves money and better working conditions as incentives to aid the Confederate effort and prevent slave uprisings

was considered the "high tide of the Confederacy.

8. The 1863 Battle of Gettysburg
(a) ended the civil war.
(b) was considered the "high tide of the Confederacy."
(c) was a decisive win for the South.
(d) marked General Ulysses S. Grant's first Union victory.
(e) enabled Union troops to claim the life of the masterful Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson.

Vicksburg

9. Which of these battles proved to be General Grant's greatest showing in the war?
(a) Shiloh
(b) Port Hudson
(c) Gettysburg
(d) Fort Donelson
(e) Vicksburg

march to the sea.

10. General William Tecumseh Sherman is most remembered for his
(a) rejection of the concept of total war.
(b) well-disciplined troops.
(c) march to the sea.
(d) capture of North Carolina.
(e) destruction of Chattanooga, Tennessee

a series of Union military victories.

11. Initially in doubt, Lincoln's reelection was alternately secured as voting day neared in 1864 by
(a) a lack of strong competition for the presidency.
(b) the solid backing of the Copperheads.
(c) his choice of the popular Andrew Johnson as his running mate.
(d) a series of Union military victories.
(e) support from Peace Democrats.

Grant's combat strategy focusing on man-to-man confrontations in the Virginia countryside

12. What was the Wilderness Campaign?
(a) Grant's combat strategy focusing on man-to-man confrontations in the Virginia countryside
(b) Lee's effort to turn the tide of the war back in the South's favor by fighting on familiar terrain
(c) A series of battles culminating in the fighting at Gettysburg
(d) Battles between Union forces and Indians on the Western frontier
(e) Grant's strategy to focus on trench warfare`

the South wanted to retain its independence.

13. Before the war actually ended, initial attempts for a negotiated peace broke down because
(a) Southerners reviled Lincoln.
(b) Lincoln was assassinated.
(c) Jefferson Davis insisted on a place in the reformed Union government.
(d) the Union insisted that the South bear the entire financial cost of the war.
(e) the South wanted to retain its independence.

Relationships with Britain and France were stressed.

14. Which of the following was NOT an outcome of the Civil War?
(a) Secession and nullification were put to rest.
(b) Relationships with Britain and France were stressed.
(c) A pro-South fanatic shot and killed the president.
(d) Champions of liberalism and democracy around the world were inspired to further those aims for themselves.
(e) Slavery, at home and beyond, was ultimately abolished.

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