DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS
the belief that God gives monarchs the right to rule
PETER THE GREAT
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
Intellectuals of the Enlightenment
having the earth as the center
having the sun as the center
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
another term for "classes" of people [the clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), townspeople & peasants (third estate)]
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
The French King who built the palace at versailles, The longest standing King of France "Sun King",, One of the most powerful monarchs of Europe, ruling 72 years. He was famous for his quote,"I am the state." Moved capital to Versailles which became a symbol of power.
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
They consisted of the bourgeoisie, the san-culottes and the peasants; they paid high taxes and had no special privileges
Radical republican group in French Rev; organized military force that saved republic, but leader Maximilien Robespierre ruled by dictatorship and set Reign of Terror into action
REIGN OF TERROR
This was the period in France where Robespierre ruled and used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front. He tried rebels and they were all judged severely and most were executed
This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
WEALTH OF NATIONS
Major work of Adam Smith that explained his laissez faire principle. Attacked government participation in economics. Also argued a nation's wealth stems from its productivity.
marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production