Olmec time period
1500 to 400 BC
Gulf of Mexico
What was the population like?
small 1000 at peak
Importance of Olmecs
Colossal heads, Jaguar god, division of labor, central plaza, slash and burn, hieroglyphics, jade, irrigation
Currency of Mayans
Where the Maya centralized or decentralized?
decentralized city states
How were the mayan city states united?
trade and alliances
Were the maya polytheistic or monotheistic?
How did the maya worship their gods
sacrifices piercings offerings
Why did the maya pierce themselves?
human blood was sacred
Mayan perception of gods
gods were good and evil
Who maintained the mayan calendars?
What two calendars did the mayan develop?
solar and religious
How long was the mayan solar calendar?
How long was the mayan religious calendar?
concept of zero, calendars, found positions of planets, ideographic writing, terraced farming
Mayan political importance
theocratic city states, tikal
Who owned most of the mayan land?
population of Tikal
Temple of Giant Jaguar
154 feet high step pyramid
Significance of Temple of Giant Jaguar
Represented Tikal's control of surrounding region
paved plaza, pyramids, palaces, public buildings
What type of economy did the mayans have?
Did the mayans use the slash and burn technique
yes they did use the slash and burn technique
political importance of aztecs
tribute, loose control, hierarchy, triple alliance, militaristic
Major aztec city state
year of triple alliance
How many provinces in aztec empire?
Who payed aztec tribute?
Loose Control of Aztecs
local rulers govern region
Economy of Ghana
Gold/salt trade, taxed goods
Religion of Ghana
Tribal religions (animism) Islam later
Government of Ghana
Why was the divine king of Ghana powerful?
trade and large army
Society of Ghana
Decline of Ghana
Expansion, Desert Raids, Fell to kingdom of Mali
Economy of Mali
controls gold trade routes
Society of Mali
Religion of Mali
Muslim Ruler made pilgrimage to mecca
Effects of Musa's distribution of Gold
value of gold declined
Mansa Musa's accomplishments
built mosques, sent students to study in Africa, restored trade routes
center of trade and learning
Decline of Mali
civil war, military pressure, berbers (nomads),Fell to kingdom of Songhai
Decline in relation of Mansa Musa
100 yrs after Mansa Musa
Traveler, spread knowledge of other lifestyles
Economy of Songhai
controlled gold trade routes
Religion of Songhai
Government of Songhai
centralized rule controlled trade routes, islam
Society of Songhai
Matrilineal clans and tribes
Fall of west african kingdoms
invasion, civil war, military conquest, advanced european weapons