Texes EC-6 Generalist 191

304 terms by MrRobKyonggi 

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schemata

clusters of ideas about objects, places, and events.

anaphora

the use of one word in place of another word.

narrative texts

those that relate a story or sequence of events

expository texts

texts that provide factual information and explanations.

Directed Reading Activity (DRA)

teacher activates and develops schemata by linking the topic of the text to students' own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamilar topic. (a teacher directed activity)

K-W-L teaching model

K- What I know. W- What I want to know. L- What I learned. Relies on metacognition.

metacognition

awareness of mental contents and processes. If "cognition" refers to thinking, then "metacognition" refers to thinking about thinking.

literal comprehension

refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in a written passage. (main idea, sequence of events, knowlege of vocabulary)

inferential comprehension

understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage. (make predictions)

evaluative comprehension

ablility to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate a text.

semantic

meanings of words and phrases

syntax

structure of a phrase or sentence.

pragmatics

rules for effective connunication in different contexts.

reading readiness skills

alphabetic knowledge

emergent literacy

childeren's beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.

print awareness

understanding the nature of print, the function it serves, and the conventions governing its use. (Allows children to distinguish between words and other forms of representation.)

environmental print

written text that's observable in one's surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.

choral reading

takes place when a group of students or an entire class reads out loud.

guided reading

teacher explains the purpose for reading a particular text as well as the structure for how to respond to what is read.

fluent reading

ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression. (ability to make use of prosodic cues) (is a dimension of oral reading)

prosody

refers to the pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm of language. (the meaning of a written sentence, punctuation)

intonation

patterns of pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences.

pre-reading stage

alphabetic and graphophonemic knowledge, may be in the process of learning word-analysis skills, but they don't yet have ability to read unfamiliar words.

initial reading stage

sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. (Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.)

fluency stage

Children become more familiar with written language, and their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of lerning more sight words.

reading to learn stage

attention is focused primarily on content rather than the act of reading itself.

repeated reading

Method in which children reread a short, meaningful passage until a degree of fluency is achieved.

oral recitation lessons (ORL)

kind of repeated reading activity exercise based on interactions between teacher and students.

partner reading

(paired reading) requires students to work in pairs and students take turns reading a passage.

sielnt reading

contributes to fluency by allowing children to familiarize themselves with key vocabulary, so that oral reading of the same passage can be based on a higher proportion of sight words. (SSR, Sustained Silent Reading or DEAR, Drop everything and read)

self-correction and feedback

contribute to greater fluency. (Important for Teachers to help students maintain positive attitude.)

content literacy

used to describe the ability to use written texts as sources of information about a given topic or area.

SQ3R method

is a student-directed approach in which students are taught five steps for studing content-area and expository texts: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review.

picture graphs

illustrate quantities

bar graphs

use horizontal or vertical bars to contrast quantities

line graphs

show changes in quantity and other variables over time

pie charts

show part-whole relationships

graphic organizer

visual representation of textual content.

miscues

cases in which a student reads a word that is different from the one that is printed.

running records

used to track students' reading progress

Independent Reading Level

student pronounces 95% or more of words correctly and shows more thatn 90% accuracy in response to comprehension questions.

Instrudctional Reading Level

student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the questions correctly.

Frustration Reading Level

student pronounces less than 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly.

tangrams

suitable for the student who needs the tactile experience with the triangle.

geoboards

provide tactile experience of creating right triangles. (a block of wood with rectangular array of pins. Pins are used to hold rubber bands or geobands in place. They are used to form triangles or other polygons.) (useful for demonsrating congurence and similarity.

visual discrimination

ability to compare and contrast objects

5 stages of learning geometry:

visualization-recognize and name figures; analysis- describe figures and objects; informal deduction- classification of figures and objects. (These are noticeable during elementary school.); deduction- involves writing proofs from definitions; rigor- work in several geometrical systems.

translation

sliding motions

rotations

turning motions

reflections

flipping motions

dilations

expansions

contractions

reductions

similar figures

have same shape

congruent figures

have exactly the same size

symmetry

occurs when perfect matching occurs

attribute blocks

ideal for working on congruence and similarity.

counting bars

illustrats congruence and similarity

tessellations

tiling patterns, are repeating a shape in a systematic pattern in order to completely fill a space.

circle graphs, or pie charts

represent the relationship that each part has to be whole.

mathematical probability

based upon chance: the likelihood of an event occurring

historical probality

based upon data accumulation over time

A fractions is used to represent probability:

# of times the successful event occures/ # of attemps that wer made

mean

average of the values

median

middle value in the set

mode

value that occurs most frequently

range

found by subtracting the smallest value in the data set from the largest value in that set

outlier

data value that is far from the other values in that particular set

hsitory

study of the material record of the past

1519:

Alonso Alvarez de Pineda explores and maps the Texas coastline.

1528:

Cabeza de Vaca is among the first Europeans to explore the Texas interior

1682:

Corpus Christi de la Isleta, the first of many Spanish missions, is established near El Paso.

1821:

Mexico gains independence from Spain.

1821:

Stephen F. Austin establishes the first Anglo-American colony, the Old Three Hundred

1830:

Mexico forbids the entry of further U.S. Settlers into Texas

1835:

The struggle for the Independence of Texas begins with the Battle of Gonzales.

1836:

The Texas Declaration of Independence is created and signed

1836:

At the Battle of the Alamo, losses include David Crockett, im Bowie, William Travis

1836:

Santa Anna is routed by General Sam Houston at the Battle of San Jacinto

1836:

Sam Houston is elected first president of the Republic of Texas

1839:

The Texas Congress meets for the first time in Austin, the new capital of the Republic

1845:

Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state

1846:

The Mexican-American War is fought over claims to the southern boundary of Texas

1846:

The current Lone Star flag is flown for the first time

1850:

In the compormise of 1850, Texas relinquishes territory and acquires its present shape

1861:

Texas secedes from the Union and joins the Confederacy

1870:

Texas rejoins the Union

1876:

The current Texas State Constitution is ratified

1901:

Oil is discoverd at the Spindletop oil field, initiating the modern petroleum industry.

Coahuiltecans

On the Coastal Plains, hunters and gatherers who lived in huts but often moved in search of food.

Karankawas

Along the Texas coast, lived in family groups and had a nomadic lifestyle.

Trans-Pecos

lived in rock shelters, built houses that were relatively permanent in desert climate where they lived. Were farmers, but also fished and hunted

Caddos

Coastal Plains, Main crop was corn, but grew other crops,were Hunters and fishers, built houses that were relatively permanent- built of cedar frames, worshiped in large wooden temples , The Caddo word for friends or allies is Tejas which is where the name of our state is derived.

Tonkawas

monadic buffalo hunters and gatherers who lived in central texas

Age of Exploration

The 15th & 16th centuries

Alonso Alvarez de pineda

sailed along the Gulf coast in 1519 in search of a strait to the pacific ocean.

1903:

The Wright Brothers make the first powered flight

1906:

William DeForest invents the vacuum tube

1908:

Henry Ford begins mass production of the automobile

1920:

KDKA-Pittsburgh become the first commerical radio station on air

1922:

Insulin is created by Canadian researchers

1927:

The first successful television transmission takes place in New York

1928:

Alexander Fleming dicovers penicillin

1932:

Wallace Carothers invents nylon

1935:

Radar is developed by Robert Watson- Watt

1936:

Significant oil fields are discoverd in Saudi Arabia

1947:

Researchers as Bell Labs invent the transistor

primary sources

information consist of actual records, first-hand accounts of events and experiences.

Secondary sources

information consist of descriptions and explanations that are created after a historical event has already taken place

Geography

the study of the earth and its inhabitants

physical geography

concerns the physical environments of the earth

cultural geography

focuses on the relationships between people and their physical environments.

tectonics

branch of geology that concerns the structure of the earth's crust, as well as changes that take place in the crust over time as a result of folding and faulting.

plate tectonics

earth's crust consists of about 20 plates that drifts, collide, and separate over long periods of time.

continental drift

change in the positions of continents over long periods of time

sea-floor spreading

the creation and movement of new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges

weathering

breaking down of physical material

erosion

breaking down and removal of physical material

accelerated erosion

constitues a major source of topographic change

meteorology

branch of earth science that concerns climate, weather, and earth's atmosphere more generally.

six flags over Texas

refers to the fact that flags of six governments have flown over Texas. These are Spain, France, Mexico, Republic of Texas, The Confederate States of America, and the United States of America.

Mother of Texas

Jane Long- because she reputed to have been the first Anglo to bear a child in Texas.

Ma Ferguson

first of two women to serve as governor of Texas

Barbara Jordan

first African-American woman from a southern state to serve in Congress when she was elected to the House of Representatives in 1973.

outline maps

maps that contain outlines of geographic regions, such as states, without additional detail

relief maps

maps that contain raised features repreenting the topography of a region

puzzle maps

maps that the tecacher cuts into shapes for students to reassemble

topographic maps

maps that use different colors and symbols to represent various geographic characteristics

civics

study of how society maintains order through government institutions and the political process.

mean

average of a set of continuous data

median

middle point in a set of continuous data

mode

the most frequently observed number in a set of continuous data

hue

name of the color

value

lightness or darkness of the color

intensity

brightness or dullness of the color

texture

visual or actual feel of the surface

shape

two-dimensional area difined by lines, colors, or values.

form

three-dimensional quality of objects: depth, height, and width

line

mark made by a tool moving across a surface

space

area that surrounds shapes and forms

dynamics

how loud or soft music is played or sung

tempo

how fast or slow music is played or sung

melody

tune of a song or piece

pitch

relates to the exact placement of a note on the staff

haromny

accompainment of a song

rhythm

analogous to how the syllables in a sentence sound

health-related fitness

promote for the development of better health now and in the future

phonemes

sounds

semantics

meaning

syntax

way put together

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